Thursday, November 28, 2019
Six Cities In Canada INDEPENDENT STUDY PROJECT CANADIAN POPULATION CHANGE IN SIX CITIES Population Change in Six Canadian Cities Since the first moment that humans arrived in Canada, Canada has undergone many changes and will continue to do so as time goes on. One of the most remarkable aspects is the growth and development of large cities throughout the country. Although Canada is the second largest country in the world, Canada's population remains centralised around those regions where opportunities are available. Because of the amount of opportunities and other social factors, people from across the world move to large diverse Canadian cities, such as Chicoutimi-Jonquiere, Montreal, Oshawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver. Between 1991 and 1996, Canadian cities have changed significantly. Using the mentioned cities as studies to show Canada's growth, figures show that Winnipeg and Oshawa follow somewhat the same trends as well as Toronto and Vancouver. Chicoutimi-Jonquiere and Montreal on the other hand follow their own patterns. The latter two are much more different from the others because they are French dominated cities. However, most trends occurring in all six cities are results of Canadian history. Populations in these cities are very different, Toronto has the highest population and a relatively high population increase between 1991 and 1996 due to a number of factors. When settlers first settled in Canada, they settled along the southern strip of what are now Ontario and Quebec. Since then Canada's centre has remained in these regions and attracts many immigrants with its high level of employment and opportunities. Toronto remains more attractive to immigrants however due to its culturally diverse population and upscale employment opportunities. Montreal, who has a very large population, is however not as quick with growing its population because of the current instability due to separatists and because most immigrants are not Francophones causing a smaller desire to move to Montreal. On the other hand, Montreal is a very business oriented city and a large centre for corporations, headquarters, and small business, which in turns creates a very opportunist place to live who may be bilingual or French speaking. Out of the six selected cities, Oshawa and Vancouver have the fastest growing populations. Oshawa being very focused on the automobile industry, offers housing at lower costs than other parts of Toronto's surrounding peripheries, and thus attracts many migrants; Oshawa also has a very low population to begin with and thus is makes it easier to have a higher percentile of growth. The growing city of Vancouver is also rapidly growing due to international immigrants, mostly from Southeast Asia, because of its short distance across the ocean and its numerous amounts of import and export ports. Thus, Southeast Asians can arrive quickly and less costly when travelling by boat across the Pacific Ocean. Chicoutimi-Jonquiere, the lowest populated city, is the only city with a decreasing population. Located in northern Quebec, Chicoutimi and Jonquiere are homes to many Native Canadians, Metis, and French Loyalists. The cities are very French oriented and are not desirable places for immigrants unless the immigrants have a specific reason for moving to this region. Population decreased by 474 people or 0.3% of the five year span for lack of pull factors to attract attention, therefore while people are either leaving the region or dying, not enough are being born or moving in order to replace one another. Population is very unevenly distributed across Canada due to history, international relations and existing communities, and will continue to be very disperse as long as different amounts and cultures of people migrate to selected cities and regions. Toronto and Vancouver, unlike the other four cities are very diverse in cultural minorities; they are home to large amounts of immigrants and carry wide ranges of languages amongst their populations. The other four cities either fall into English spoken or French spoken inhabitants. Chicoutimi-Jonquiere, being home to many Natives and French are dominated by non-English mother tongue people, with very few immigrants and few visible minorities; meanwhile, Oshawa and Winnipeg have populations dominated by those who primarily speak English, are non immigrants and are not of visible minority. Again, the social aspects of these cities have very much to do with the cities' history and employment set up.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Yucca mountain essays After reading the article, I do not know if the author is qualified to write on the subject of nuclear waste disposal. He seems to know what he is talking about but he failed to put the information in any particular order so that his readers will understand what he is trying to say. He proposes a way of disposing nuclear waste but then proceeds to skip around and not connect his thoughts. He needs to think before he writes. Maybe a rough draft or two would help. The author is trying to propose a method of disposing nuclear waste. He suggests that radioactive waste be incased in lead and then be incased in glass. He says that glass, when properly annealed, would be as hard as steal and virtually indestructible. He also states that the Yucca Mountain Project is not a good choice by telling the reader that on June 14, 2002, a 4.4 earthquake on the Richter scale was experienced. He questioned how safe the site is. The author has very good points but fails to back them with facts. He makes very good points such as the current method of nuclear waste disposal is not safe to the environment at all. Currently, the rods are wraped in lead then they incase them in concrete. After that, we store them at the site or dump them in the ocean or the North Dakota Badlands. He also states that in Norway, a hole is dug and the rods are simply dropped into it. The problem with these methods are that their lifespan is roughly about 200 years and then waste begins to leak. The tone of the article is persuasive. He is trying to convince everyone that his proposal will work. By having a persuasive tone, he than can affect the readers in one strong point. The author tends to use broad generalizations rather then a well thought out analysis. Haddow, like many others, is clearly bias. He believes strongly that he is correct. Writing a biased paper in not wrong but it does not give the other side of the argument which can be a little frustrating if...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Betrayal of Public Trust - Essay Example Due process was observed. Blagojevich's removal from office was therefore legal. The impeachment proceeding was the only way to oust Blagojevich from office based on the United States constitution. Also, the evidences presented were more than substantial to declare his removal and prohibit him to serve any public position in Illinois. Responsibilities of Public Administrators In public service, there is delineation between personal and public interest. This goes to say that if one is a public servant, he or she should make sure that his or her public dealings are not tainted with his or her personal interest. When he or she serves the public, he or she should always uphold values that would best promote the interest of his or her constituents. This is actually the foundation of individual ethics and office ethics. There are certain matters that are to be limited to as to avoid conflict of interest while in public office. As a person, one has practiced certain values. Some of these va lues are relevant in public office and some are not. Sometimes, these ethical frameworks overlap. This means that the public servant has considered one value more than the other. An instance of corruption is a good example. It may happen that the person thinks more of his personal interest than the welfare of the public. Nevertheless, there are also times when individual and office ethics diverge. This happens when the public servant considers his or her personal interest in relation to all his or her constituents. Such situation implies that the public administrator never forgets his or her bounden duty to the public. It also means that he or she recognizes the fact that he or she can be made accountable to his or her acts as a public official. Relevance of the Case Blagojevich's... In public service, there is the delineation between personal and public interest. This goes to say that if one is a public servant, he or she should make sure that his or her public dealings are not tainted with his or her personal interest. When he or she serves the public, he or she should always uphold values that would best promote the interest of his or her constituents. This is actually the foundation of individual ethics and office ethics. There are certain matters that are to be limited to as to avoid conflict of interest while in public office. As a person, one has practiced certain values. Some of these values are relevant in public office and some are not. Sometimes, these ethical frameworks overlap. An instance of corruption is a good example. It may happen that the person thinks more of his personal interest than the welfare of the public. Nevertheless, there are also times when individual and office ethics diverge. This happens when the public servant considers his or her personal interest in relation to all his or her constituents. Such situation implies that the public administrator never forgets his or her bounden duty to the public. It also means that he or she recognizes the fact that he or she can be made accountable for his or her acts as a public official. Blagojevich's case should be a lesson to all American public administrators. They should always be mindful that they are to be made accountable by their constituents as to their performance of public duty.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Philosophy - Essay Example It believed that since the source of unhappiness was the body itself, happiness could be derived only when the body became devoid of any kind of pain or suffering, and their psyches relieved from the traumas of the world. Epicurus advocated a rational approach to life to circumvent the fear of gods and fear of death. They feel confident that both god and death are not concerned with human beings. Both have a wide variety of tentacles to grapple or monitor in addition to human beings. The Epicurean outlook on death is quite a poetic truth that envisages: death can not inflict pain on us since we would be no more after death; and we need not fear any pain of death as death do not capture us when we are alive. According to this ideology, there is no need to fear death, since by the time of death, the body ceases to bear sensation and therefore, the pangs of death may not be experienced. Thus, humans need not fear what they cannot feel, or endure, which is death. Again, according to Epicurean theory, unhappiness is the outer manifestation of inner anxieties and fears caused by material longings. The physical pain and sufferings one endures is also a part of this unhappiness. According to him, absence of unhappiness could be rendered by manÃ¢â¬â¢s constant engagement in working for peace and harmony within himself. Leading a pleasurable life, enjoying the company of philosophical friends/ associates and not worrying too much about worldly affairs could also lead to happiness. (Lecture 9: From Polis to Cosmopolis: Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic World: 323-30BC: Hellenistic Philosophy). Epicurean philosophy delineates that happiness and tranquility are not attainable by man otherwise than by obtaining what is desired with propensity of not falling prey to it. The Epicurean philosophy deals much with the laws of physics. It does not spell anything
Monday, November 18, 2019
Enterprise and Business Development - Essay Example Though the writer has no direct relationship with either the Microsoft Corporation or its Owner, yet indirectly he has many relations with both of them. The writer is continuous and constant consumer of many of the products of Microsoft, and utilizes them for his domestic, personal and office use. The writer seeks great inspirations by the charismatic personality and unbelievable accomplishments of Mr. Bill Gates, who earned incomparable respect, pelf, possession and fame all over the world within shortest period of time at such a young age. It is therefore, the writer selected him as his favourite entrepreneur. The writer has discussed his early life, schooling and education in Part A of this paper. In addition, his family background and interests have also been discussed in the same part. Similarly in Part B, the writer has described his company and discoveries it has made within short span that looks a dream rather than reality indeed. Furthermore, the writer has poured few words in his business techniques, strategies, vision and future plans that make a remarkable winning combination in the race of achievements and triumphs. The contemporary age is the age of competition and technological advancement. Millions of enterprises have entered the international markets to fulfil the growing needs of the people in order to make human life more and more comfortable and advanced one. The marvellous inventions in the field of technology have brought revolutionary changes in human activities. The induction of computer, mobile-phone and internet has changed the very scenario of everyday professional, occupational and domestic living altogether. The business strategies and corporate enterprises have established trends of perfect competition where people witness dramatic changes on every coming day. Ã¢â¬Å"Western nations, and especially the United StatesÃ¢â¬ , Newman & Logan view, Ã¢â¬Å"rely on thousands of
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Potential For Professional Misuse Of Power Social Work Essay The focus of attention of this essay is on The potential for professional misuse of power by health care professionals when working with vulnerable groups. The author of this paper will address a number of issues as they relate to the topic question, which includes, describing a vulnerable group nominated for discussion and why they are at possible risk, there for outlining examples of misuse of professional power and putting forward strategies to address situations that arise, offering approaches that prevent the misuse of power from happening in the future and summarising legislation and professional codes of conduct involved with client care of the vulnerable group. The group nominated to illustrate the potential for professional misuse of power is those who live with a mental illness. There are a number of reasons why this particular group has been chosen and they include, the idea and notion of marginalisation, and social stigmas associated with having a mental illness. This hea lth care issue is an issue that crosses all social and economic boundaries and divides society. In days gone by, the views held by many in our communities had been consistent with the notion and idea of out of sight out of mind. Thankfully community attitudes are changing so to health care practices towards the treatment of a mental illness. In spite of these changes there still exists the potential for mistreatment and the misuse of power by some professionals who not only exacerbate the problem of the patient but also bring the profession into disrepute. The following will now discuss as to the reasons why by giving examples of misuse of power that some health care professionals are entrusted with. History teaches us many lessons, the accounts of abuse of mental health clients and patients are many. In describing examples of abuse by care workers the concept of what are boundaries will be discussed. Discussed in the context of what constitutes what is acceptable and what is deemed inappropriate. That is, from the view point of noting the points where medical staff can assert power and to what extent this means in terms of patient rights. Boundaries can be looked at from a number of points of view. For example boundaries can be seen as those sets of rules that establish the grounds by which one engages. For instance boundaries can be established by clearly defined sets of ordered and structured statements that indicate the manner and way in which clients are dealt with. (http://www.nrgpn.org.au/ 2nd August 2010). They can come in a number of forms that appear in the shape of; Acts or laws, policies, work place practices and so on. Take the Mental Health Act, for this assignment the Author has used the example of Act content from the Western Australian Act 1996 where Part 7 discloses Protection of patients Rights to be given). (Http; /webcache,googleusercontent.com 27th July 2010). Professional boundaries can be described as those conditions that distinguish between sets of behaviour that may lessen the health outcomes of the patient. The idea and notion of what boundaries represent and mean can best be summed up by saying that they are those sets of conditions that bring about an acceptance of each parties roles and responsibilities in a particular relationship. In summary they set the standard where by clearly defined sets of conditions establishes a manner of conduct and behaviour that informs the worker what they ought to do at the same time informing them of what this means in terms of their relationship with the patient. In the context of examples of the misuse of power, one could quite easily conclude that the misuse of power occurs when a worker crosses those professional boundaries of trust and neglects their commitments and responsibilities which in turn create the potential for the inappropriate care and treatment, which results in poor outcomes for the client. With respect to the concern of preventing abuse by health care professionals, the issue of standards and transparent diagnosis and evaluation of a mental illness comes to mind. In turn the issue of creating and maintaining sets of standards are important factors in preventing abuse. Important because they (the standards) establishes mode and method of not only treatment but of means and measures of developing a more structured way of not only appropriately assessing those with an illness but also ensuring that the diagnosis falls within particular guidelines. In terms of transparent practices, clearly defined guidelines need to be put in place that shows an open and ordered means by which patients are then processed and dealt with. Standards are the key to managing the prevention of abuse of the mentally ill. Standards from the point of view of realising measured and ordered approaches to the practices of caring for the mentally ill as well as guaranteeing fair and equitable management of the patients concerns. In dealing with the issue and concern of developing approaches to manage the potential for eliminating abuse from happening in the future the proposal for a much broader campaign of drawing the attention of the communities understanding to what is going on makes for a point from which to start. Measures for eliminating abuse must take on a much broader and wider audience. The issue is both a social one as well as a political one. The effect of such a campaign must take place within all quarters of society. The failure to address the concern as a much broader social issue can have disastrous consequences not only on the client affected by abuse but also on the profession it self. There must be a greater emphasis placed on intake procedures and screening as well as safety checks put in place within the profession. A greater level of management practices that are consistent with standards that place emphasis on treatment outcomes and doctor/nurses skills training must take precedence. Medical staff must also be aware of all resources like the Australian Health and Ethics Committees resource kit outlining good medical practice in doctor/nurse patient communication. These set of guidelines focus on how doctors (communicate with patients and the need to discuss treatment plans including information on risks, and, restricted circumstances when immediate provision of information may not be desirable). (http://www.nhmrc.gov.au 21st August 2010) This will help to ensure that levels of safeguards are established and put in place that dictates the grounds upon which patients are treated as well as ensuring that those who provide the service are able to cope with the related concerns in away that creates well ordered work practices. As mentioned in the above prevention of abuse of mental health patients is a social concern. The stigma and stereotyping that has gone on in the past has only exacerbated and enhanced the typical stereotypes that exist in society for far too long. The kind of mind sets that exist does not in any way help the situation at all. Failures to recognise the concern in its social context will do little to comfort those who seek and wait for the kind of change that will bring about work place practices that are void of those mind sets described in the above. In order for the above to have any affect it must be accepted that people suffer from mental illness in all quarters of our society. As stated previously it does not discriminate and crosses all cultural and social boundaries both socially and economically. In light of this statement the following will address in further detail the mechanisms where by change can be affected and by what means it can be achieved. However it must first be acknowledged that social and professional change is not always an easy thing to achieve. It must also be acknowledged that our society is based on sets of principles and ideas that are fundamental to the way it functions and operates. In that context then it must be accepted that we all no matter what our disposition, are afforded rights of consideration and respect. The kind that are and should be common place within a democratic society that operates and functions on principles of equity and equality for the masses, the kind of principles that entitles each and everyone one of us fair treatment. Based on the position then it should be no surprise that is addressing concerns of misuse of power and the subsequent abuse of power by health care professionals should and must be governed and managed by sets of procedures and practices that are consistent with these principles. Often mistreatment in the work place can be linked too much broader social images and attitudes. Thats why work place practices must be supported by a much larger body of thought and action that spells out quite clearly that the misappropriation of power against those who have little control over their situation must be enforced. That is in the context of legislation and government and judicial management orders that establish clear and mandatory codes of practices. This in turn must be supported with mandatory and skills based training for professionals to better manage the risk of inappropriate behaviour and actions. In examining the points raised in the above a case study found in Ethics and law for the health professions 3rd edition, by the authors Kerridge, Lowe and Stewart (2009) illustrates well, a number of important and fundamental concerns when considering issues of misuse of power and behaviours that are inappropriate. For example the authors in setting out the case study of a woman who was suffering from case of low self esteem talked about the type of power relations that are tipped in favour of the psychiatrist. The authors in summary (describe the outcomes for the women in terms of misappropriate diagnosis and maltreatment with respect to medication and management of the illness. The Authors go on to state that Psychiatrists diagnose patients as having mental illness, institutionalise them against their wishes or free them from imprisonment, give them mind-altering substances and administer electro-convulsive therapy) (which means the application of electric current to specific areas to the head to produce a generalised seizure (Mental Health Act 1996 part 5). These power imbalances are the cause of many of the ethical issues in psychiatry. Kerridge, et, al (2009, p. 499). In short if a position had to be taken, as to the primary reason behind the misuse and abuse of power by health care professionals and this can be applied across the industry as a whole, then it would need to be one not to dissimilar to that stated by the authors in the above. That is, much of the concerns that the mentally ill face are based on power relations that are tipped in favour of the professional health care provider. The case study mentioned in the above is one that is all to typical of the kind of mind sets that pervade the profession. This is a prime example of those relations that exists and one which is representative in the way that it seeks to manage the cause and effect of the patients condition and in the process takes away not only their rights but also their dignity. Finally, and in summing up, this paper has attempted to provide a discussion, although brief in detail points for consideration when it comes to issues of the misuse of power towards the mentally ill by some health care professionals. This brief discussion has attempted to highlight not only the need for the management of concerns in a much broader context but also in terms of the internal institutional organisation of treatment of patients. This paper offers for consideration a number of considered points to ponder as they relate to legal and ethical concerns of a other wise stigmatised and marginalised group. Vulnerable they are but not without rights. As a result of considering this topic in more detail, if there is one point of consideration that the author of this paper would like to share as a result of reflection, then it would be this. The responsibilities of health care professionals are enormous. They are the kind of responsibilities that impact profoundly on how patients a re engaged and managed. Profoundly, in both the context of their much broader obligations and profoundly in the context of the social consequences of their actions as they relate to the health outcomes of the patient. And finally the above has reviewed the legal and ethical considerations that are fundamental to the practice of health professionals doing what they have been trained to do, engaging the patient in the kind of relationship that in turn helps to prevent the misuse of power by health care professionals.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The play begins in a 'desolate place' as the stage directions tell us. Shakespeare uses the pathetic fallacy of 'Thunder and Lightening.' This creates an atmosphere of dark and evil and anticipates something frightening. There are three witches, casting a spell, as Shakespeare shows through the use of rhyming couplets at the end of lines. In addition to this, he uses the syntatic parralelism to suggest that everything is not what it will seem. 'Fair is foul and foul is fair.' This warns the audience so that they can make predictions of what will happen in 'Macbeth.' A Jacobean audience and Shakespeare?s contemporaries believed in the supernatural very strongly, including the king of that time, King James I of England. They would be intrigued by the witches? predictions in ?Macbeth,? as well as the witches? costumes on stage being scary to them. Nowadays, witches aren?t thought of as an avatar of the devil, so it would take a different kind of witch to interest a modern audience, one that challenges stereotypes. In the next scene Macbeth is shown to be fighting agaisnt the Norweigen army single handedly, showing imense bravery. Therefore, the juxtaposition between Scene I and Scene II, in Act I, is evil and good, the complete opposites. The opening scene of the play is a future prediction about the battle between good and evil and ?Fair is foul and foul is fair.? In Act I Scene III Macbeth meets the witches upon a heath. The witches predict that Macbeth is going to become Thane of Cawdor and they ?hail Macbeth, that shalt be King Hereafter!? Later on in the scene Ross and Angus enter to tell Macbeth he is to become Thane of Cawdor. This instance of dramatic irony encourages Macbeth to... ...is leads up to Lady Macbeth falling to her death. The hallucinations of blood on her hands driving her to the point of insanity so much so that she had to commit suicide. The supernatural element of the play still has an effect on a modern audience. For example, ?Fair is foul and foul is fair.? It gets the audience guessing. When the audience meets a character that appears to be ?good? on the outside, it keeps them wondering what they are really like. After all, ?Macbeth? is a play designed to be performed for and to involve the audience. Although the supernatural nowadays take on a more friendly prevalence-than in the 1600?s- such as in TV programmes like Buffy or Sabrina, and aren?t considered as gruesome, evil characters, the supernatural in ?Macbeth? still have great dramatic impact on a 21st century audience. How does Shakespeare Exploit the Supernatural for dramatic Effect in Ma The play begins in a 'desolate place' as the stage directions tell us. Shakespeare uses the pathetic fallacy of 'Thunder and Lightening.' This creates an atmosphere of dark and evil and anticipates something frightening. There are three witches, casting a spell, as Shakespeare shows through the use of rhyming couplets at the end of lines. In addition to this, he uses the syntatic parralelism to suggest that everything is not what it will seem. 'Fair is foul and foul is fair.' This warns the audience so that they can make predictions of what will happen in 'Macbeth.' A Jacobean audience and Shakespeare?s contemporaries believed in the supernatural very strongly, including the king of that time, King James I of England. They would be intrigued by the witches? predictions in ?Macbeth,? as well as the witches? costumes on stage being scary to them. Nowadays, witches aren?t thought of as an avatar of the devil, so it would take a different kind of witch to interest a modern audience, one that challenges stereotypes. In the next scene Macbeth is shown to be fighting agaisnt the Norweigen army single handedly, showing imense bravery. Therefore, the juxtaposition between Scene I and Scene II, in Act I, is evil and good, the complete opposites. The opening scene of the play is a future prediction about the battle between good and evil and ?Fair is foul and foul is fair.? In Act I Scene III Macbeth meets the witches upon a heath. The witches predict that Macbeth is going to become Thane of Cawdor and they ?hail Macbeth, that shalt be King Hereafter!? Later on in the scene Ross and Angus enter to tell Macbeth he is to become Thane of Cawdor. This instance of dramatic irony encourages Macbeth to... ...is leads up to Lady Macbeth falling to her death. The hallucinations of blood on her hands driving her to the point of insanity so much so that she had to commit suicide. The supernatural element of the play still has an effect on a modern audience. For example, ?Fair is foul and foul is fair.? It gets the audience guessing. When the audience meets a character that appears to be ?good? on the outside, it keeps them wondering what they are really like. After all, ?Macbeth? is a play designed to be performed for and to involve the audience. Although the supernatural nowadays take on a more friendly prevalence-than in the 1600?s- such as in TV programmes like Buffy or Sabrina, and aren?t considered as gruesome, evil characters, the supernatural in ?Macbeth? still have great dramatic impact on a 21st century audience.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Assess The Relationship Between Crime, Poverty And Social Protest In The Eighteenth And Early Nineteenth Centuries
America had rebelled and after a successful war become independent; and war with France, which had experienced internal revolution that caused serious concern to the British ruling classes, lasted until 1815. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801 (Evans 2002, 3). In 1700, with a population of approximately 5 million in England, perhaps 80% of the population lived in the countryside, with some 90% in agriculture or related employment whereas by 1801 the population had risen to 8. million and by 1851 to nearly 18 million with only 22% employed in agriculture (Porter 1990, 11, 207; Gardiner & Wenborne 1995, 610; Timmins 2005). The transformation of society through changes in agriculture and industrialisation led inevitably to the creation of new economic relationships and identities within society and to the destruction of old ones. Crime, poverty and social protest were significant factors in these centuries although their relationship is much debated by h istorians. It is certain that their relationship, as well as changing over time, differed by locality, for example heavily urbanised London, whose population had increased to perhaps 700,000 by 1770, will have undergone different experiences to, say, a rural county such as Herefordshire (Shakesheff 2003). Any discussion of the relationship of crime, poverty and social protest must rest on an initial discussion of these terms, in particular the first. Crime is generally understood to indicate acts that contravene the law but this masks the many kinds of accidental and unpremeditated acts, emotional or mental states, deliberate actions and motivations that may come into play (Sharpe 1999, 5). Even within a society there may be disagreements on what constitutes a crime, and the difference between a criminal and non-criminal act may rest on the context of the act. Legislators too may create new crimes while decriminalising other acts. Poverty is perhaps less problematic to define, since it is usually considered with respect to ideas of subsistence and meeting the requirements of physical well-being (Gardiner & Wenborne 1995, 613). Even so, it should be considered as relative to changing expectations and living standards. Social protest may take many forms, such as riots, and can be defined as a social crime (Sharpe 1999, 179). The notion of social crime, developed by Hobsbawm, rests on the differing understandings of crime that may exist between groups and the official position (Sharpe 1999, 176). Social crimes are defined as those that can be said to represent Ã¢â¬Ëa conscious, almost a political, challenge to the prevailing social and political order and its values' (Sharpe 1999, 176). Thompson has argued for a moral economy which legitimates social crime by placing it in the context of defending traditional customs or rights, where they may differ from the values of those who make the law (Thompson 1991). According to statistical evidence, crime seems to have been at a low at the beginning of the eighteenth century, increasing, at least around London and Surrey, with the increasing population and urbanisation, by 1780 (Sharpe 1995, 6). Short-term bursts of crime seem to have been affected by crop failures and by the demobilisation of the larger armed forces utilised by imperial Britain, especially after 1815. The steepest increase in crime appears to have been in the 1840s (Emsley 1996, 295). The most common kinds of crime in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries appear to have been small opportunistic thefts (Emsley 1996, 293). Crime statistics, however, may give an imprecise impression of crime since many crimes may, for various reasons, never be officially reported. One category where crime, poverty and social protest definitively meet is in the Swing Riots of 1830. England at the beginning of the eighteenth century was a largely agricultural nation with the majority of the population living in rural areas. During the course of that century there were profound changes. The rising population, especially from the mid-eighteenth century, created a surplus of agricultural labourers for whom there was no corresponding rise in rural employment, while migration from rural areas, in terms of the natural increase in population, declined from 100% in 1751 to only 29% in 1831 (Hobsbawm and Rude 1969, 43). Agriculture had, by this time, come to be dominated by a division into landlords, tenant-farmers and hired labourers (Hobsbawm and Rude 1969, 27). Increasing economic rationalisation of agriculture by landlords and tenant-farmers saw further consequent declines in the conditions of the agricultural labourers who, divorced from the land, became reliant on less regular and less well paid employment with worsening conditions. Their situation was exacerbated by the Poor Law which supplemented and thus kept down wages (Hobsbawm and Rude 1969, 45-53). It is argued that this degradation of the agricultural labouring class led to the Swing Riots, which began in 1830, as a reaction to bad harvests in 1829 (Gardiner and Wenborne 1995, 729-30). This social protest was directed mainly at threshing machines, but also included burnings devices designed to further decrease the need of labour on farms. Swing letters included demands for increased wages and Hobsbawm and Rude (1969, 220) concluded that the movement was essentially one of labourers Ã¢â¬Ëwith essentially economic ends'. Machine breaking had taken place in other contexts, notably in the burgeoning industrial sector. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Luddite movement that preceded the Swing Riots. Luddism, like Swing, seems to have been a reaction to poor harvests, increasing food prices, unemployment and wage cuts as well as changing industrial relations (Archer 2000, 49). Opinion on Luddism in its three main areas of northern England differs in terms of the extent to which scholars have identified political motivations as opposed to industrial protest. Like Swing, Luddism focused on anti-machine action in the context of the removal from traditional artisans of their means of livelihood and style of living. Thompson (1991, 352-403) has stressed the effects of changing working patterns with regard to timekeeping and the changes in the synchronisation of labour in an industrial society from the more irregular rhythms that went before. Machine breaking may have been criminal as defined by the law and may have been further encouraged by economic difficulties, nevertheless, it seems indisputable that instances of machine breaking and the wider movements that can be identified fall within the category of social protest and were to some extent linked with poverty or the threat of poverty. Horn (2005) mentions the riots of the Spitalfields silk weavers in 1675, 1719, 1736 and the 1760s, as well as many other instances of machine breaking amongst sawyers and most particularly weavers. This emphasises the tradition of machine breaking, which could be seen as a Ã¢â¬Ëcustomary' for of industrial relations stretching back a century (Horn 2005). Certainly in the case of the agricultural labourer in the Swing Riots, wages were a motivating factor (Hobsbawn and Rude 1969 195-96). Between 1780 and the 1830s, wages in East Anglia had gone from being some of the highest to the lowest, since there was a lack of alternatives to agriculture unlike in the northern and industrial regions (Archer 2000, 9). This coupled with rising prices caused massive pauperisation while the Poor Law and local systems of relief could be and were manipulated by farmers to further push down wages in the knowledge that other rate-payers would have to subsidise the poor of the parish (Archer 2000, 10). The shock to the wealthier classes caused by the riots that inevitably broke out was evidently exacerbated by the deferential behaviour traditionally shown to them by the poor, who presumably realised its importance in gaining relief. A lack of humane response on their part, in Archer's words Ã¢â¬Ëmisread deferential behaviour for deferential attitudes' (Archer 2000, 10). The government reaction to riots may reveal something of the elite perception of how valid they were. In their combined actions, the Luddites and Swing had caused only two deaths while at the same time the damage to property was considerable (Horn 2005). Initial waves of Luddism in 1811-12 caused perhaps i100,000 worth of damage to looms and factories. It is this perhaps that explains to some extent the decision of the government to field more troops to crack down on Luddism, some 12,000, in 1812, than were fielded in the Peninsular Campaign against Napoleon in 1808. Frame-breaking became a capital crime and between 1812-17, 36 Luddites were hanged followed later by 19 Swing Rioters. Protest crime formed only a small percentage of prosecution, peaking at 8. % in 1831 and of the number that took part in the riots only a small part ended up in court (Archer 2000, 87). Furthermore, many death sentences were commuted to transportation and many rioters were released without charge. It has also been noted that in comparison to food rioters, protesting the price of grain caused by bad harvests and war, suffered hanging less often (Archer 2000, 28-30, 87). Many have noted the increase in legal concern for property in the eighteenth century e mbodied by the Ã¢â¬ËBloody code' (Sharpe 1995, 8). Between 1660 and 1819, there were 187 capital statutes enacted into the law, mostly concerning property (Hughes 1988, 29). Many of the new Acts explicitly embodied a repressive state and criminalized the poorest labouring classes and were passed in reaction to riots or social unrest (Linebaugh 1991, 16). Notable in this context is the notorious Waltham Black Act, passed in reaction to agrarian riots and unrest in Hampshire, which created over 200 capital offences. Rioters had poached game and fish as well as burning hayricks and threatening landlords (Hughes 1988, 29). The Riot Act of 1715 was designed to combat and disperse meetings and assemblies of 12 or more persons, a seeming precursor of the late twentieth century laws ostensibly to disperse illegal raves. It was a popular tool against collective action by the labouring classes (Linebaugh 1991, 17). Those classes, in particular some 15,000 journeymen tailors, were struck at again by the Combination Act of 1721. This law made it illegal for them to take collective action in order to press for better wages or shorter working hours. This they had done through strike and had suffered imprisonment in return. In principle the Combination Act criminalized the notion of improving working and living conditions and class action and can be noted as the first anti-trade union law (Linebaugh 1991, 17). Despite the rise in capital offences in law, the actual number of hangings declined throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Hughes 1988, 35). There are various reasons for this, such as squeamishness on the part of the judges and the exercise of mercy, especially the Royal Prerogative, although most appeals seem to have been rejected (Gatrell 1994, 200-208). Transportation and imprisonment were increasingly used, the former system supplying labour and, following the American revolution and the use of hulks as prisons, transportation to Australia became a viable option for permanently ridding Britain of its criminals (Hughes 1988, 41-42). This last point is highly relevant in the context of Linebaugh's argument that the poor and the criminal were difficult to distinguish (1991, xxi). Changes in the law undoubtedly led to rising crime, since as has been noted, more offences were created. Some historians, such as Thompson and Linebaugh have seen this as a conflict between custom and law. For example, many workers believed themselves to be customarily entitled to perquisites or allowances related to their employment. In the agricultural sector, the best known of these was gleaning Ã¢â¬â following the gathering of the harvest, women and children would collect the leftover scattered grain that had been missed (Emsley 1996, 122). This practice supplemented and could even form a major proportion of an agricultural labouring families' diet. Although gleaning was seen as a custom and denial of the right to glean could meet with criticism, it was observed by Arthur Young in 1771 that it was not Ã¢â¬Ëan imprescribable right' (Emsley 1996, 123). Abuses of gleaning that went to court met with the response that gleaning was not recognised as a legal right, however the farmer's conscience may allow him to permit gleaning. On the other hand, some farmers sought to have gleaning stopped but the case was refused by magistrates (Emsley 1996, 124). Thus gleaning occupied an ambiguous status, the law refused to outlaw it, despite the wishes of certain farmers while refusing to recognise it as a legal right of the labourers. Thompson notes that these customs were quite normally disputed (Thompson 1991, 104). Customs such as gleaning are mirrored in industrial and other work settings. Silk workers and weavers were particularly low earners and owing to the techniques of production, wasteful in resources, which could be appropriated for further use (Linebaugh 1991, 258, 264). A market grew up for cloth waste, which had many uses in producing other items and by the mid-1770s Spitalfields was a major centre of this trade. The law attempted to suppress the trade, but unsuccessfully. However, silk workers, and of them weavers in particular, formed a group whom the law was prone to threatening with hanging (Linebaugh 1991, 258). The production of a Ã¢â¬ËBook of Prices' by the Spitalfields weavers and the corporate action by 2000 of them to enforce it in 1763 was a precursor to a 1764 protest march by the weavers petitioning for higher wages and against cheap imports, which saw the state drawing on the military. Poor harvests in the following year upped grain prices and filled workhouses while the silk workforce decreased by 1768 to half its level of six years earlier (Linebaugh 1991, 271). Corporate and direct actions such as those of the silk workers, who were joined by other groups, the Luddites and the Swing Rioters helped to formulate a culture of fear in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As mentioned above, the American war of independence and the French revolution were other causes of fear amongst the ruling classes of those beneath them. Hughes (1988, 25) states that Ã¢â¬Ëthe belief in a swelling wave of crime was one of the great social facts of Georgian England'. It is not difficult to comprehend that for those observing from above, riots, protests and crime committed by the poor were part and parcel of the nature of that class of people and that the reaction would be to staunch such behaviour through the law and the militia. These fears were fed by other factors such as the rise of newspapers publishing reports of crime statistics and vivid stories that reinforced elite views of the poor in society and in turn led to the reification of entrenched moral views that were transposed into laws that tended to further criminalise the poor. Crime, poverty and social protest in the eighteenth and nineteenth century can be seen as linked in the context of the increasing proletarianisation of the workforce and conflict between the wage earning poor and the law making elite. Linebaugh (1991, xxi) observes this as the Ã¢â¬Ëexpropriation of the poor from the means of producingÃ¢â¬ ¦ and the appropriation by the poor of the means of living. Emsley (1996, 295) observes that it seems significant that property crime increased during economic slumps. However, he goes on to suggest that a monocausal link between poverty and crime is too simplistic. He cites other reasons for increasing crime, for example, the growth in wealth and material goods allowed more opportunities for crime and increased temptation and the extension of commerce and business also increased the opportunities for corruption (Emsley 1996, 295). Certainly, not all social unrest can be seen in terms of poverty or the defence of custom. It seems that the strong tradition of this kind of action speaks of attempts to control the means of livelihood as opposed to warding off poverty. However, the reality and threat of widespread poverty in particular areas and spheres of employment must be seen as a strong motivating force in any action. As for crime, it cannot be doubted that much crime was necessitated by poverty. Equally to account this as the only factor would be facile, since it ignores the personal and individual aspects of each crime. It is tempting though to see an increasing concern for goods and materials throughout this period of increasing production and the defence of property in law would seem to follow from that. Hughes comments that the rule of law became the supreme ideology in this period (1988, 29). Increasing economic rationalisation and market capitalism placed workers livelihoods and working traditions in jeopardy and this, coupled with price fluctuations and an increasing population undoubtedly increased crimes of necessity, although it should not be forgotten that while real crime may have increased, the means of measuring crime became more accurate and more actions became criminal. The concern with property perhaps inevitably led to doubts over the legality of customary appropriation, such as gleaning. But while such Ã¢â¬Ërights' may have been disputed over centuries, the changing economic and social factors and the rise of the law and legalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries inevitably led to them taking on a different significance that would have long lasting repercussions in the social relations and perceptions of people in Britain.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Smurfs essays At the height of the Cold War, a new cartoon emerged. Little blue people called Smurfs sang and skipped into the hearts of the American populace. The good, clean antics of the Smurfs were the model of American values, or were they? One should look closely at the Smurfs, their values, their cultures. Surprise! The Smurfs were not capitalistic at all. They were Communists! Communist practices and doctrine have not only infiltrated American television, but they have also become integral parts of America itself. Communism has even become a part of the American education system. How has communism been adopted into the American educational system? Some examples of this infiltration into the classroom include one of the Ten Planks of Communism, atheism, controlled learning, propaganda, school to work programs, and busing. Communism as it is known today was first proposed by Karl Marx in 1848 when he published The Manifesto of the Communist Party (Leone 13). Marx envisioned a Utopian societ y where everyone was equal. Such a society would combine growth with fairness by allowing the bureaucrats to make most of the decisions concerning the economy (Samuelson). As in The Smurfs, there would be no money, and everyone would contribute what they could and receive what they needed (Schmidt). There would be one manor source of income, and the entire collective would contribute to that source. At the time of Marx, communism stiff fell under the category of socialism. During the last twenty-five years of the nineteenth century, there was a split in the Socialist Party, and communism began to be recognized as a movement of its own. The original Communists were small extremist groups of revolutionaries within the European socialist movement. It was not until the Russian Revolution in 1917 that socialism and communism finally parted ways (Leone 14). By 1985, over one-third of the population of the world claimed to be Marxist, including countries in Europe...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
3 causas para que te quiten la green card La green card, o tarjeta de residencia permanente, es un privilegio otorgado por la autoridades estadounidenses a extranjeros que cumplen con ciertos requisitos y que permite trabajar y residir en Estados Unidos. Pero la pueden quitar por 3 causas. Antes de comenzar a explicar cada una de esas 3 causas, es conveniente comenzar destacando que hay dos tipos de green card. En primer lugar, la condicional que se da en 2 casos: cuando se adquiere por inversiÃ ³n a travÃ ©s de una EB-5 y en ciertos casos en los que se saca por matrimonio con un ciudadano (no en todos). Estas residencias condicionales se convierten en permanentesÃ a los dos aÃ ±os, despuÃ ©s de hacer ciertos trmites legales. Por otro lado, si no se levanta la condicionalidad, la green card deja de tener validez y tambiÃ ©n se puede revocar si no se cumplen las condiciones para levantar dicha condicionalidad. Por ejemplo, que la inversiÃ ³n no sea la adecuada o que el matrimonio hubiese acabado en divorcio. Y en segundo lugar, estn las tarjetas de residencia permanentes. Estas son, en principio, para toda laÃ vida. Excepto en casos muy concretos en los que el gobierno puede decidir que cancela o revoca o considera no vlida una tarjeta de residencia. Causas para perder la green card o tarjeta de residencia permanente La green card puede perderse cuando se da alguna de las siguientes 3 causas:Ã Fraude- Bajo esta categorÃ a entran acciones muy diversas, como por ejemplo, un matrimonio de conveniencia con el Ã ºnico propÃ ³sito de conseguir la green card. Pero hay ms: mentir en un formulario migratorio o, incluso, ocultar informaciÃ ³n relevante en uno de los trmites. En el momento en que se descubre el fraude se puede invalidar la green card.Condena por ciertos delitos- Se trata de situaciones graves debiÃ ©ndose prestar atenciÃ ³n a los casos de condenas por los denominados delitos agravados. En caso de tener en contra una acusaciÃ ³n por este tipo de delitos es fundamental contar con la defensa de un abogado criminalista con conocimiento en posibles efectos migratorios de una condena. En estos casos, despuÃ ©s de cumplir con la condena, el migrante se enfrenta muy seriamente a la posibilidad de quedarse sin la green card y ser deportado. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. Abandono- Esto sucede cuando el inmigrante no cumple con su obligaciÃ ³n de residir habitualmente en los Estados Unidos. Por ello, hay que ser prudentes con los tiempos que se pasan en otros paÃ ses, particularmente si se trata de ms de 180 dÃ as y menos de 1 aÃ ±os. Y tambiÃ ©n saber que puede resultar muy conflictivo el hecho de entrar a trabajar a diario a Estados Unidos pero vivir en MÃ ©xico o en Canad. En los puentes internacionales con MÃ ©xico se ha dado casos de migrantes legales a los que se ha alentado para que renunciaran voluntariamente a la green card, cosa que si quieren no estn obligados a hacer (ver ms al final de este apartado). Adems, en los casos de estancia fuera de Estados Unidos por ms de 1 aÃ ±o pero menos de dos se necesitar un permiso de reentrada.Ã Si es ms de 2 aÃ ±os la duraciÃ ³n de la estancia en otro paÃ s, no hay problemas si se trata del cÃ ³nyuge o hijos menores y solteros de personal civil o militar o similares de los Estados Unidos y que est estacionado en el extranjero. En los dems casos a veces se puede solicitar una visa SB-1 como residente que quiere retornar pero que sÃ ³lo se concede si se cumplen requisitos muy estrictos. El formulario a llenar es el formulario que se conoce como DS-117. En los dems casos de pÃ ©rdida de la tarjeta de residencia por abandono sÃ ³lo es posible recuperarla iniciando de nuevo todo el proceso y esperando mientras tanto fuera de los Estados Unidos.Ã Es muy importante que si se llega a un punto migratorio de ingreso a Estados Unidos y el oficial asegura que se ha producido un abandono de la residencia que el residente permanente se niegue a firmar el documento que se conoce como I-407 Abandonment of LPR Status. Si lo hace, pierde la consideraciÃ ³n de residente. Por el contrario debe solicitar ver a un juez migratorio y se le debe entregar una Notice of Appear para presentarse en Corte. SÃ ³lo asÃ se le puede quitar la tarjeta de residencia despuÃ ©s de que el juez encuentre de forma clara e inequÃ voca y basndose en evidencia de que verdaderamente se ha abandonado el estatus de residente. En otras palabras, no firmar el I-407 en ningÃ ºn punto de control migratorio y pedir ir a Corte. Otros requisitos de los residentes permanentes La tarjeta de la green card es vlida por diez aÃ ±os. Debe renovarse antes de que expire. Asimismo, si se pierde o se mutila debe aplicarse por una nueva y notificar su extravÃ o, robo o destrucciÃ ³n a las autoridades migratorias. La Ã ºnica excepciÃ ³n es cuando se solicita y obtiene la ciudadanÃ a por naturalizaciÃ ³n. Una vez que se es ciudadano ya no hay que renovar nada. Los tiempos de espera para solicitarla depende de cÃ ³mo se haya obtenido la residencia. Finalmente, los residentes permanentes tienen otras obligaciones, como pagar impuestos o notificar los cambios de domicilio. Consejos para conservar la green card Por ley, todos los residentes legales permanentes mayores de 18 aÃ ±os deben llevar consigo en todo momento prueba de su estatus migratorio. El no cumplimiento de este requisito puede dar lugar a una condena por faltas. La aplicaciÃ ³n de esta ley varÃ a muchÃ simo de estado a estado. Para aprender ms sobre la green card, los derechos que da y las obligaciones que impone es aconsejable tomar este test de respuestas mÃ ºltiples. Da respuesta a las inquietudes ms frecuentes. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Managing Project - Research Paper Example A project is defined as 'a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result' (PMI, 2000:4) there are two key aspects to the concept of projects. These are 'temporary endeavour', indicating that there is a beginning and an end to it, and 'unique product, service or result' implying that day-to-day operations are not (part of) projects. The implication here is that the IR project is comprised of two aspects, those being the actual execution of the project and the daily operations involved in the fulfilling of the aforementioned goal. Project management is a broad area of study, involving multiple business aspects ranging from strategic decision making to human resource management and from stakeholder management to investment decisions. The first papers on project management techniques were not published until the 1950s (PMI, 2000). Most literature referred to large scale military, defence, IT, construction and R&D projects. Project management was defined as the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Further, it provides one with the tools and strategies which are prerequisite for the successful management of projects (Mumford, 2000; Charvat, 2003). It has been identified by several management and organizational development scholars as integral to the efficient and effective management of large-scale organizations (Elonen and Artto, 2003; Meredith and Mantel, 2003; Thiry, 2004). In direct correlation to the proposed IR project, the above stated definition outlines the extent to which project management is ideally suited for the former's purposes. The IR project is both sizeable and complex, added to which, it is primarily driven by such developmental needs as which have identified the energisation of the country's tourism sector as integral to economic growth. Both the size of the project and the internationally competitive sector within which it is located highlight the necessities of utilising project management tools and strategies as a means of ensuring on-time and n-budget completion. 2.3 Programme Management Programme or project portfolio management may be defined as the coordinated management of grouped projects (Gray, 1997) for the purpose of maximising efficiency by prioritising projects, eliminating those that incur excessive risks and costs, and identifying those that best subscribe to organisational objectives (Meredith and Mante
Friday, November 1, 2019
Literature review - Research Paper Example Studies where there was no MRSA screening were also excluded because these studies did not offer the information needed to address the major goal of this review. In addition, studies where MRSA infection was not confirmed by microbiologic techniques were excluded because this review was designed to study only patients that were confirmed to carry the infection after both screening and microbiologic techniques. Based on the findings from the cases in the literature, the broad problem was that too many patients are transmitting Methicillin resistant Staph aureus in ICU. Specifically, the literature aimed to provide evidence for the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Would the high transmission rate decrease if screening in adult patients was conducted upon admittance to the ICU unit as opposed to not screening?Ã¢â¬ This problem is important to pursue because it affected patient outcomes including the length of stay and complications from other illnesses. This problem also had a potential impact on th e quality of treatment due to overcrowding and understaffing. The costs were also affected since the hospital was forced to use more money for testing, medicine, and housing patients. Finally, the access to needed medications was limited, and ordering caused further delays. For the purposes of this study, the patients in each case study were limited to adults who were admitted to the ICU section. Children were not included in any of the studies regarding MRSA, and patients in other sections of the facility were also excluded. The following review placed eleven case studies into discussion, focusing on the interventions, comparisons, and outcomes of the studies. Each study included a report on the interventions used for that study, with interesting results from each case study. Clancy, Grepler, Wilson, Douglas, Johnson, and Price (2006), used swab samples which were obtained upon admission to ICUs and weekly thereafter patients who tested positive from nasal or clinical specimens wer e placed in contact isolation, even after readmission DNA fragments were analyzed for similarity of banding PFGE patterns. Dalla Valle, Pasca, De Vitis, Marzani, Emmi, and Marone (2009), also gathered swab samples, although they obtained the samples upon admission and twice-weekly thereafter. Patients who screened positive received isolation and/or antibiotic or colonization therapy. Honda, Krauss, Coopersmith, Kollef, Richmond, Fraser, and Warren (2010), conducted nasal screening, and had the patients who screened positive had contact precautions implemented with no antibiotic or colonization therapy. Clancy and Dalla Valle would have probably described HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s practice as irresponsible since antibiotics were not administered and patients were not relocated to a secluded area. This made the study ineffective, because there was no way to prevent the spread of MRSA between patients in the ICU. Other case studies that used the swab method included Lucet, Paoletti, Lolom, Paugam -Burtz, Trouillet, Timsit, Deblangy, Andremont, and Regnier (2005) used nasal swabs to obtain within 24 hours at admission and weekly thereafter. Although once a week was a consistent testing window, the case study probably would have generated far stronger results if testing had been conducted at lease twice a week. Contact precautions were implemented in MRSA positive patients. Another method used to determine MRSA was the standard culture method. Cunningham, Jenks, Northwood,