Friday, May 31, 2019
THOMAS COLE ornament painting was exceedingly important during the middle of the nineteenth century. maven of the leading practitioners of landscape mountain lions in America was Thomas Cole. He visited many places seeking the natural world to which he might utilize his direct observations to carry the untainted nature by man to his audience. His tends resolved to find goodness in American land and to help Americans take pride in their unique geological features created by God. Thomas Cole inspired many with his brilliant works by offering satisfaction to those seeking the truth (realism) through the works of others. Thomas Cole was born on February 1, 1801 in Bolton, Lancashire, England. Due to financial problems his family endured, Cole, at the ripe old age of just fourteen, had to find work to assist with the family needs. He entered the work force as a textile printer and wood engraver in Philadelphia. In 1819, Cole returned to Ohio where his p arents resided. Here, a port rait painter by the name of Stein, would become Coles primary teaching vehicle and inspiration for his oil techniques weve come to be familiar with. During this time, Cole was extremely impressed by what he saw in the landscapes of the New World and how different they were from the small town of England from whence he hailed. Self taught, art came course to Cole.One day Cole set out to observe nature and its wilderness. He began painting pictures by first making oil sketches of American rocks, trees, sunsets, plants, animals, as well as distant Indians. From these sketches he formed several paintings. Most famous for his allegorical collection called the The Course of Empire and is well-known for his Landscape paintings, The Oxbow, The Woodchopper, and The Clove, Catskills.In January of 1826, Cole had become to be known for founding the National Academy of Design. During this time, many would comission him to paint pictures of American scenery, but his primary desire and goal, he sa ys, was to create a higher style of landscape that would express moral or religious tones. In 1836, Cole married Maria Barstow and settled in Catskill, New York. Catskill would obviously become the inspiration for his piece, Catskill Mountains and the Hudson River. From these paintings he influenced many other artists. Among these artists were Frederick Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadt.... ...s Cole did an excellent job in portraying realism in his paintings. He helped America vision a society with possibilities, opportunities, and abundance of resources. Not only did Cole inspire the nation he also influenced many artists who are now heading Coles way. Cole was a brilliant man of great intelligence who stole the hearts of many. In an article write by William Church Bryant, Bryant explains, We might dream in his funeral oration on Cole, that the conscious valleys miss his accustomed visits and that autumnal glories of the woods are paler because of his departure. Cole died on Feb ruary 11, 1848 due to an illness and was remembered by many whom he helped to see the true vision of America.BibliographyWorks Cited Harvey, Eleanor Jones. The Painted Sketch American Impressions From Nature 1830-1880. Dallas Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1998. Lucie-Smith, Edward. American Realism. New York Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1994. Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Rev. ed. Vol. 2. New York Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1995. 973-974. Yaeger, Bert D. The Hudson River School American Landscape Artists. New York Smithmark Publishers, 1996.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The Mass-marketing of Working Class Culture The fads of the father are visited on the son weve all seen how adult fads are given down to children. Weve seen how cargo gasp have trickled down, thanks to the Gap, Baby Gap, and Old Navy (all corporations owned by The Limited, Inc.). Cargo knickerbockers have always been a mystery to me. The attractive thing about them is storage (which Ill get to later), blandness and personal appearance. I nevertheless considered wearing cargo pants because theyd hide how chunky my thighs are. And theyre beige and boring--they thus go with anything. I also dont understand this fascination with looking working-class (In a recent copy of Vogue, there were ritzy, high-priced versions of lumberjack clothing). Theres absolutely nothing wrong with that and I dont want to sound like an elitist, because Im by no agent not working-class. I just wonder why this a trend, why white collar workers want to look like they work with their hands. But this fascinati on with storage, with having so many products presents a problem. Cargo pants were designed so workers could essentially wear their toolbox. Todays kids wearing cargo pants dont need that space for hammers and nails. To subdue acknowledging that cargo pants are a silly trend, wearers unconsciously seek to fill their pockets. As Lacan might say, empty pockets remind us of our lacks. Cargo pants only encourage the reckless. The Gap, like any other capitalist corporation, wants consumers to spend oodles of money. Providing more storage space in a pair of pants allows for children and teens to spend even more money filling them. What the Gap has done is transformed the meaning of cargo pants. It is a redefinition todays cargo pants wearers arent laborers, theyre spenders. Isnt that a brainy thing, the Gap may ask us. Its a way of showing how the upper class has always stepped all everyplace the lower class, taking what aspects of its culture it likes and discarding the individuals in volved. Weve seen this over and over, but it usually has been a races culture that has been used while the individuals are considered meaningless by the ruling classes. This is happening again today with Latin culture. sporting culture takes what few things it likes (namely Jennifer Lopez and Ricky Martin, maybe a salsa beat, and some Tex-Mex food), and celebrates it as all Latin culture has to offer, ignoring debates about the Latinness of such aspects anyway.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
My First KissKissing a watermelon? No, Ive never been THAT desperate. My sister Amy went on to tell me to the highest degree her friend who dared to do such a feat. Did it help? I asked. We dont know She hasnt kissed a real guy yet Amy and I burst into a fit of giggles, and I realized how being in the company of my younger sister regressed me to her awkward, girlish high school age. I had forgotten, until this bedside 200 a.m. conversation, how I used to be obsessed with popularity and sports cars, and how I daydreamed of my introductory kiss. But Amy had much more experience than I did at her age. She and her friends had passed their adolescent initiation of first kissesat least the kind on the lips. In the back of the CHURCH van? With everyone watching? Where did he kiss you? On the LIPS she squealed. Amys excitement and fear about kissing ignited a rush of memories. How I used to romanticize about first kissing some one I thought that I would be in a long flowing gown, and the handsome young man would bring me flowers, and ask to court me. Our kiss would be done on the porch, under an encouraging moon and a harmony of stars. Or maybe I would be in a MacDonalds, and the most good-looking guy Id ever seen would come to my table, buy me a hot fudge sundae, and he give me a kiss when he walked me to my car. Ah, the kiss was exciting to say about as well. I had no idea what it would be like, but I knew it would feel wonderful. This quick pucker and follow-through would be my initiation into womanhood, someway setting me apart from other girls who could barely fill a bra or who, as rumors went, practiced kissing by mutilating fruit. A rite of passage, a first romance, yes. But my girlish head had set itself upon one quest I would be truly in love with the young man I first
Exploring Methodological IndividualismABSTRACT I defend the truth of the principle of methodological individualism in the social eruditions. I do so by criticizing mistaken ideas about the relation between individual people and social entities held by earlier defenders of the principle. I argue, first, that social science is committed to the intentional stance the domain of social science, therefore, coincides with the domain of intentionally described human action. Second, I argue that social entitites are theoretical terms, simply quite different from the entities used in the natural sciences to explain our empirical evidence. Social entities (such as institutions) are conventional and open-ended constructions, the applications of which is a matter of judgment, non of discovery. The terms in which these social entities are constructed are the beliefs, expectations and desires, and the corresponding actions of individual people. The relation between the social and the individual levels differs fundamentally from that between, say, the cellular and the molecular in biology. Third, I claim that methodological individualism does not amount to a reduction of social science to psychology rather, the science of psychology should be divided. intentional psychology forms in tandom with the analysis of social institutions, unitary psycho-social science cognitive psychology tries to explain how the brain works and especially how the intentional stance is relevant to human behavior. The principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences has its origin in the Austrian school of economics and was introduced into the philosophy of social science in general by Friedrich Hayek and Karl Popper. Hayek was the first to us... ... the Aristotelian Society 76, 1-27.Rosenberg, Alexander (1980), Sociobiology and the preemption of social science. Baltmore Johns Hopkins University Press.Ruben, David-Hillel (1985), The metaphysics of the social world. London etc. Rou tledge & Kegan Paul.Stich, Stephen (1983), From folk psychology to cognitive science. The sheath against belief. Cambridge, Mass./London MIT Press.Thornhill, Nancy Wilmsen (1991), An evolutionary analysis of rules regulating human inbreeding and marriage, Brain and Behavioral Sciences 14, 247-261.Tuomela, Raimo (1984), A theory of social action. Dordrecht etc. D. Reidel. (1995), The importance of us. A philosophical look at of basic social notions. Stanford, Cal. Stanford University Press.Watkins, John (1952), Ideal types and historical explanation, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3, 22-43.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Life Is GlamorousWhether you wander down random roads or plan precise paths, the exciting journey we call life involves many choices. The decisions we make on a day-to-day basis affect everything. Questions such as, What should I wear today? or Should I really be eating this? are asked by many people everyday. Sure, a simple beauty snip could probably answer both questions in one article, but in order to live a happy, healthy life there are more important questions to be resolved. trance magazine answers every question, and includes unique highlights. Because of its superiority in the periodical market, Glamour has won over 75 editorial awards since 1990 (PRNewire 2). frequently of this is due to its effective design in which the magazine is split up into seven main sections beauty, fashion, health & body book, men, sex & love, life & happiness, captivate news, and glamour buzz. Although there are numerous sections, they all tie into helping educate women on how to be happy with who they are and how to also make the most of what that is. severally part proceeds to give detailed professional advice on these topics. Also by understanding the broad range of potential readers, this periodical includes less unsuitably intimate articles like some other fashion/beauty magazines do. By providing factual information that is also interesting, Glamour makes it easy to find the answers to every quintessential question one might have about being a woman, and in doing so, empowers them with the knowledge needed to enhance their lives A visible enhancement Glamour can provide deals with physical appearance. Beauty is a very important part of womanhood. Many people weight their self-esteem solely on this alone, and although this may be unhealthy, it is a common occurrence in todays society. To help relieve some of the pressures of societal demands, Glamour features articles that inform readers of the most recent methods to help them look their best. In the beauty sect ion, the magazine includes reviews on new beauty products and the latest technology. This proves to be very helpful when purchasing cosmetics, moisturizers, and cleansers, or when muse a surgical enhancement of some kind. The product reviews detail how effective each product is and if the dollar value is reasonable for t... ...en need someone to secern them they are beautiful just the way they are (Bear 1). Glamour knows that with exceptional beauty, fashion, and health knowledge every woman can look and feel their best. The professional advice on men and relationships helps a woman expand socially, as do the various styles of news. By educating them on all of these levels, the magazine empowers women with the knowledge and capability to remedy their quality of life. In doing this, Glamour magazine proves to be comprised of quality worthwhile journalism, equipped with factual and entertaining information that profoundly benefits all women.Works Cited1.Bear, Merryl. admirer Inde ed. Winnipeg Jul/Aug 2003. Vol. 20, Iss. 3 p.1, 1p.2.Craig, Courtney. Great-fitting Jackets for All Shapes Feb 2005. p.77, 1p.3.Hudephohl, Dana. The Dangers of Yo-yo Dieting Feb 2005. p.92, 1p.4.Ostrow, Melissa. Jamie Lee Curtis No Barbie doll. Mar/Apr 2003, Vol. 33 Iss. 3/4, p7, 1p.5.PRNewswire. The American Society of Magazine Editors Mar 21, 2004. p.2, 2p.
Life Is GlamorousWhether you wander down random roads or plan precise paths, the exciting journey we call life involves many a(prenominal) choices. The decisions we make on a day-to-day basis affect everything. Questions such as, What should I wear today? or Should I really be eat this? are asked by many people everyday. Sure, a simple beauty magazine could probably answer both questions in one article, but in order to live a happy, healthy life there are more weighty questions to be resolved. Glamour magazine answers every question, and includes unique highlights. Because of its superiority in the periodical market, Glamour has won over 75 editorial awards since 1990 (PRNewire 2). Much of this is due to its good design in which the magazine is split up into seven main sections beauty, fashion, health & body book, men, sex & love, life & happiness, glamour youthfuls, and glamour buzz. Although there are numerous sections, they all tie into helping organize women on how to be ha ppy with who they are and how to also make the most of what that is. Each part proceeds to give detailed professional advice on these topics. in like manner by understanding the broad range of potential readers, this periodical includes less inappropriately intimate articles like some other fashion/beauty magazines do. By providing factual information that is also interesting, Glamour makes it easy to find the answers to every quintessential question one might have about being a woman, and in doing so, empowers them with the knowledge needed to enhance their lives A visible enhancement Glamour can provide deals with physical appearance. Beauty is a very important part of womanhood. Many people weight their self-esteem solely on this alone, and although this may be unhealthy, it is a common occurrence in todays society. To help relieve some of the pressures of societal demands, Glamour features articles that inform readers of the most recent methods to help them look their best. In the beauty section, the magazine includes reviews on new beauty products and the latest technology. This proves to be very helpful when purchasing cosmetics, moisturizers, and cleansers, or when pondering a surgical enhancement of some kind. The product reviews detail how effective each product is and if the dollar value is reasonable for t... ...en need someone to tell them they are beautiful just the way they are (Bear 1). Glamour knows that with exceeding beauty, fashion, and health knowledge every woman can look and feel their best. The professional advice on men and relationships helps a woman expand socially, as do the various styles of news. By educating them on all of these levels, the magazine empowers women with the knowledge and capability to improve their quality of life. In doing this, Glamour magazine proves to be comprised of quality worthy journalism, equipped with factual and entertaining information that profoundly benefits all women.Works Cited1.Bear, Merryl. F riend Indeed. Winnipeg Jul/Aug 2003. Vol. 20, Iss. 3 p.1, 1p.2.Craig, Courtney. Great-fitting Jackets for All Shapes Feb 2005. p.77, 1p.3.Hudephohl, Dana. The Dangers of Yo-yo Dieting Feb 2005. p.92, 1p.4.Ostrow, Melissa. Jamie Lee Curtis No Barbie doll. Mar/Apr 2003, Vol. 33 Iss. 3/4, p7, 1p.5.PRNewswire. The American Society of Magazine Editors Mar 21, 2004. p.2, 2p.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Te Whariki Te Whariki is the Ministry of Educations early childishness curriculum policy statement. Te Whariki is a framework for providing childrens early learning and development deep down a social cultural context. It emphasises the learning partnership between teachers, p atomic number 18nts, and families. Teachers weave a holistic curriculum in response to childrens learning and development in the early childhood setting and the wider context of the childs world. This curriculum defines how to achieve progress towards this idea for learners in early childhood learning environments.It is about the individual child. Its scratch point is the learner and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that the child brings to their experiences. The curriculum is also about early childhood settings. Learning begins at home, and early childhood programmes outside the childs own home play a significant role in extending early learning and in laying the foundations for successful future learnin g. There are four broad principles at the centre of the early childhood curriculum. Empowerment The early childhood curriculum empowers the child to learn and grow.Holistic Development The early childhood curriculum reflects the holistic way children learn and grow. Family and Community The wider world of family and community is an integral part of the early childhood curriculum. Relationships Children learn done responsive and interactional relationships with people, places, and things. The strands and goals arise from the four principles. The whariki is woven from these four principles and from the following five strands, or essential areas of learning and development.The principles and strands together form the framework for the curriculum. Each strand has some(prenominal) goals. Learning outcomes have been developed for each goal in each of the strands, so that the whariki becomes an included foundation for every childs development. cosmic string 1 Well-being The health and well-being of the child are protected and nurtured. Goals Children experience an environment where their health is promoted their emotional well-being is nurtured they are kept safe from harm. Strand 2 Belonging Children and their families feel a sense of belonging. GoalsChildren and their families experience an environment where connecting links with the family and the wider world are affirmed and extended they know that they have a place they feel comfortable with the routines, customs, and regular events they know the limits and boundaries of acceptable behaviour. Strand 3 Contribution Opportunities for learning are equitable, and each childs plowshare is valued. Goals Children experience an environment where there are equitable opportunities for learning, irrespective of gender, ability, age, ethnicity, or background they are affirmed as individuals they are encouraged to learn with and on base others. Strand 4 Communication The languages and symbols of their own and other cultures are promoted and protected. Goals Children experience an environment where they develop non-verbal communicating skills for a range of purposes they develop verbal communication skills for a range of purposes they experience the stories and symbols of their own and other cultures they discover and develop different ways to be creative and expressive.Strand 5 Exploration The child learns through active exploration of the environment. Goals Children experience an environment where their play is valued as meaningful learning and the importance of spontaneous play is recognised they gain trustingness in and control of their bodies they learn strategies for active exploration, thinking, and reasoning they develop working theories for making sense of the natural, social, physical, and material worlds.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
1.Functional RequirementsFunctional acquirements define the fundamental actions that governance must perform.The functional requirements for the agreement are divided into three main categories, Reservation/Booking, Food, and Management. For further details, remark to the example cases. eccentric 1.1. Reservation/Booking1.1. The system shall record reservations.1.2. The system shall record the customers first name.1.3. The system shall record the customers last name.1.4. The system shall record the act of occupants.1.5. The system shall record the get on tote up.1.6. The system shall display the default room rate.1.6.1. The system shall allow the default room rate to be transfigured.1.6.2. The system shall require a comment to be entered, describing the reason for ever-changing the default room rate.1.7. The system shall record the customers phone number.1.8. The system shall display whether or not the room is guaranteed.1.9. The system shall generate a unique confirmation number for separately reservation.1.10. The system shall automatically cancel non-guaranteed reservations if the customer has not provided their credit card number by 600 pm on the check in date.EXAMPLE 22.Food2.1. The system shall track all meals grease ones palmsd in the hotel (restaurant and room service).2.2. The system shall record earnings and payment type for meals.2.3. The system shall bill the current room if payment is not made at date of service.The system shall accept reservations for the restaurant and room service.EXAMPLE 33. Management3.1. The system shall display the hotel occupancy for a condition close of time (days including past, present, and future dates).3.2. The system shall display projected occupancy for a period of time (days).3.3. The system shall display room revenue for a specified period of time (days).3.4. The system shall display food revenue for a specified period of time (days).3.5. The system shall display an exception report, showing where d efault room and food prices have been overridden.3.6. The system shall allow for the bringition of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.3.7. The system shall allow for the deletion of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.3.8. The system shall allow for the modification of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.3.9. The system shall allow managers to assign user passwords.2 Nonfunctional RequirementsFunctional requirements define the needs in terms of performance, logical database requirements, design constraints, standards compliance, reliability, availability, security, maintainability, and portability.EXAMPLE 1Performance RequirementsPerformance requirements define acceptable response measure for system functionality.The load time for user interface screens shall take no longer than two seconds.The log in information shall be verified within louver seconds.Queries sh all return results within five seconds.ExampleLogical Database RequirementsThe logical database requirements include the retention of the following data elements. This list is not a complete list and is intentional as a starting point for developmentBooking/Reservation SystemCustomer first nameCustomer last nameCustomer considerCustomer phone numberNumber of occupantsAssigned roomDefault room rateRate descriptionGuaranteed room (yes/no)Credit card numberConfirmation numberAutomatic cancellation dateExpected check-in dateExpected check-in timeActual check-in dateActual check-in timeExpected check-out dateExpected check-out timeActual check-out dateActual check-out timeCustomer feedbackPayment received (yes/no)Payment typeTotal BillFood ServicesMealMeal typeMeal itemMeal orderMeal payment (Bill to room/Credit/Check/Cash)EXAMPLE3Design ConstraintsThe Hotel Management System shall be a stand-alone system running in a Windows environment. The system shall be developed using Java and an Access or Oracle database3. Illustrate a time physique needed to complete each commercial enterprise based on the requirements from question 2.(5 Marks)Answer Estimating time framesTo manage your time well, you should do it not only what tasks you need to accomplish, but also when those tasks must be completed and how long theyll take. fashioning accurate estimates about how long a task will take is one of the keys to feelingive time management. Many management problems are the result of fantastic estimates of how long it will take to complete specific tasks.If you estimate time frames accurately, youll be able to schedule operate efficiently and meet deadlines schedule work efficiently Accurate estimates about how long tasks will take to complete make scheduling a lot easier.They ensure that you wont have to keep changing your schedule. If you have a task that you accurately estimate will take six hours, for example, you can allot that time in your schedule and be moderate ly confident you wont have to change the schedule. But what if you didnt accurately estimate the time for that task and allotted it only three hours? It would throw your schedule off, and youd need to redo it. meet deadlines If youre accurate in estimating the time it will take to complete tasks, youll be better able to meet your deadlines.If youre estimates arent accurate, you may need to ask to change deadlines or disappoint others who are relying on you to complete certain tasks. With accurate time estimates, youll also be more confident about setting deadlines because you know that the time you assign for completing each of your tasks is realistic.Time estimate equationIts all important(p) to estimate the time frames for your tasks accurately so that you can schedule all your work effectively and meet deadlines.To go about doing this, you first need to know the requirements of each task and your experience with activities both when they run smoothly and when they dont to p roduce three time estimates The likely time is the time that the task normally takes you to complete. It helps to consider the time it takes to complete the task without interruption.You should also think about a time frame you would be comfortable with based on your workload, the task, and any external factors that may delay or speed up the completion of the task. The shortest time is the least total of time that you have taken to complete the task in the past. It may also refer to the shortest time in which you think you can complete the task if there are no interruptions or distractions. You can estimate the seven-day time by considering what may go wrong when performing the task and accordingly adding this extra time to the tasks likely duration.This estimate should be based on your experience of this type of activity in the past, as well as on any foreseeable difficulties.You use the three time estimates to calculate the shortest thinkable time to complete a task based on a n average of the likely, shortest, and longest times. Because in most cases a task will take the likely time to complete, this time is given more weight. You need to multiply it by 4, add the shortest time, and then add the longest time.You divide the total by 6 to get the shortest possible time.One important thing to remember is that you must use the said(prenominal) measurements for each type of time. For example, if your likely time is a number of days, the shortest and longest times must also be in days. If your estimates are in various measurements, start by changing them so they are all the same. The time frames equation often produces a shortest possible time that is longer than the shortest time you practice into the equation.This is because the equation helps ensure that youre realistic about how long things will take.To manage your time effectively, you have to estimate the time it will take to complete each of your tasks. Doing this ensures you can schedule your work a ppropriately and meet all your deadlines. To estimate the time frames for your tasks, you can use a simple time frames equation, which uses estimates for the likely, shortest, and longest times to calculate the realistic, shortest possible time that it will take to complete a task.https//library.skillport.com/courseware/Content/cca/pd_11_a02_bs_enus/output/html/sb/sbpd_11_a02_bs_enus002005.html4.Identify and explain five (5) threats to your business that you need to consider for the success of this system.Answer After assessing the energys and weaknesses of your business for your business plan, look for external forces, like opportunities and threats, that may have an effect on its destiny.These changes includeThe appearance of crude or stronger competitorsThe emergence of unique technologiesShifts in the size or demographic composition of your market areaChanges in the economy that affect customer buying habitsChanges in customer preferences that affect buying habitsChanges that alter the way customers access your businessChanges in politics, policies, and regulationsFads and fashion crazesList the threats and opportunities facing your business, and follow these guidelinesWhen listing opportunities, consider emerging technologies, availability of sassy materials, fresh customer categories, changing customer tastes, market growth, new uses for old products (think about how mobile phones and even eyeglasses now double as cameras and computers), new distribution or location opportunities, positive changes in your competitive environment, and other forces that can affect your success.When listing threats, consider the impact of shrinking markets, altered consumer tastes and purchase tendencies, raw material shortages, economic downturns, new regulations, changes that affect access to your business, and competitive threats, including new competing businesses and competitive mergers and alliances. Also think about the impact of expiring patents, labor issues, g lobose issues, and new products that may make your offering outdated or unnecessary.If youre having a tough time getting specific, look back at the strengths and weaknesses, but this time, use it to list strengths and weaknesses of a competitor. You wont know as much about your competitors capabilities as you know about your own, but you probably know enough to flag areas of strength and weakness.Your competitors strengths are potential threats to your business, and its weaknesses present potential opportunities.http//www.dummies.com/business/start-a-business/business-plans/how-to-identify-opportunities-and-threats-in-business-planning/5. Write down three (3) elements of put on the line and two (2) example each that relate to the project.(9 Marks)Answer. All risk management standards agree that the goal of risk management is to enhance the chances of success of the relevant endeavor.However, each of them provides a distinguishable explanation of risk ISO310002009 calls it effect of suspense on objectives, the PMI PMBOK Guide has an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on the projects objectives, and the preferred Risk atomic number 101 definition is uncertainty that matters.Each description is true, but only partly so.This matters because, until we know what we are dealing with, we cannot manage it in the best way possibleIf we use the ISO definition, then our first thought will be to focus on the effectIf we follow PMI, then we will start from the potential particularWith the Risk Doctor definition, we start from uncertainty.Each of these the effect, the event and the uncertainty is a component of risk, but on its own is not a risk.Even taken in pairs they do not provide the full picturean effect positive an event is an issuean event plus an uncertainty is a prediction an uncertainty plus and effect is a concern.It is only when you put all three together that you can see what a risk is made of, and use th is information to judge on what, if anything, to do about it. Of course, this then requires a longer definition, but the goal enhancing the chances of success is worth the effort.But what is success? It is more than simply meeting objectives it must also include the condition of complying with project constraints in order for the final result to remain within scope.Given this clarification, a more complete definition is Risk consists of three parts an uncertain situation, the likelihood of occurrence of the situation, and the effect (positive or negative)that the occurrence would have on project success.The three-part definition helps with three important stages of the risk management processIn 1.risk identification, it supports the structured description of a risk (risk metalanguage) in the form Because of , may occur, leading to In 2.risk evaluation, friendship of potential causes allows you to evaluate the likelihood identification of effects provides a basis for quantifying th e impact.In 3 risk response planning, the different parts of the definition suggest different response approachesfor threat avoidance, understanding the situation may allow you to stop it happening or protect against its resultsunderstanding the situation can also be used to help us exploit opportunitiesin risk transfer or sharing, we seek a partner better equipped to address the effectfor threat reduction or opportunity enhancement, we focus on the effect and/or the likelihoodin risk acceptance, any contingency plan has to address the effect.Including these three components when you describe risks (the uncertainty, the event and the effect) will help everyone involved in risk management to take account of these three important aspects of risk, and act on them to enhance the chances of success.EXAMPLETwo examples of Managing risk in hote
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Abstract This theatre of movements is a review of Bangladeshi Frozen Food Business. Frozen Foods in Bangladesh encompass from fishes to ready-to-cook pabulums. How invariably, fishes and pewits be exported and generate foreign exchanges for Bangladesh, whereas, the semi- processed regimens ar import and produced topical anestheticly. Indeed, it is a potential telephone line where agricultural wad whoremonger be benefited by investing little issue forth of money, and producing and meeting the emergence implore in the commercialise.This paper assentingally concerns on the constraints of trading much(prenominal)(prenominal) as deprivation of right on trained people, stiff competition for the home do processed aliments. Therefore, this paper identifies overbold scope for the growth and augmentment of this segment. Since this segment has got little concerns, we intrust that this paper would meet the requirements for the development of the rimed sustenance busi ness and aid the base for further research on this segment. Introduction Though Bangladesh is an rustic found orbit, its aquaculture is underhighly-developed and contri only whening to the export of the inelegant.In fact, the frozen(p) livelihood is one of largest contributor to the foreign exchange earnings and occupies fourth position among the export items in terms of integral export earnings (Bureau of Statistics, 2004). In Bangladesh, frozen solid f ar includes shrimp and fish, and shrimp contributes to the major(ip)(ip)ity of earnings from the frozen fodder. However, in recent years, the frozen f atomic number 18 business has be surface diversified, and traditional thinking ab out(p) it has withal changed. In Bangladesh, it has been development based on the fishery along with processed meat and chicken.Indeed, in Bangladesh, new trend in the frozen viands business is emerging in silence, which is semi or fully trick upd nourishment in sell goings. solely unf ortunately, there is non much research work on this segment of frozen solid victuals for thought business done, which is ontogenesis and growing a new in advance(p) concept in the vacuum space of frozen food business. In fact, this development and its policy implications pay off received little attention in the publications on export-led industrialization in developing countries (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).Therefore, for our research work, we are focusing on processed frozen food found in the retail outlets, and hope that this work would help for the further development of this segment in frozen food business in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, fishes, shrimps and prawns are exported as frozen food to various exposes of the world. The frozen seafood heavens is booming by exporting. Earnings from this range are increasing and have the potential to enlarge more(prenominal). The value of these exports in 1996-97 was US$342. 26 zillions (Bureau of Statistics, 1997).However, the shrim p belt of Bangladesh is al elbow rooms the subject of debates on law, order, safety and convergenceion process and food fictitious character and environmental issues. As such, in 1997, the European Union (EU) imposed a ban on Bangladeshs frozen food exports after an EU inspection team report condemned shrimp touch on plants in Khulna and Chittagong for their failure to comply with EU forest control regulations (http//www. ifpri. org). However, the agenda of concern is with the semi or fully prepared frozen food that is an emerging commercialise in Bangladesh.These food items have been commercialized recently under comp approximately(prenominal) labels the resembling Bombay Sweets, prolific and Aftab. In addition, there are different concerns that supply with this type of frozen food and they are called home do items. The range of frozen food can contain prepared or semi-prepared food like parathas, pizza, franks, samucha, chops, shami kabab, puri, nuggets, and many more e xquisite delicacies. The increasing inquire for these types of products has given rise to interior(prenominal) output signal of these food items, whereas, a couple of years back e genuinelything was imported (Personal Interview, Nandon).Origin of the Study Basically frozen food can be a processed or semi-processed food that is kept in freezer to suss out back it for later intent. However a cleanse explanation may include, Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. Freezing food is a common method of food preservation which slows both food decay and, by turning water supply to ice, makes it unavailable for bacterial growth and slows down close to chemical reactions (http//www. wikipedia. com). Moreover, the condition required to keep frozen food is diifferent. Foods may be preserved for several months by freezing.Long-term freezing requires a constant temperature of -18 C (0 degrees Fahrenheit) or less. Some freezers cannot achieve such a low temperature. The time food can be kept in the freezer is reduced good if the temperature in a freezer fluctuates. Fluctuations could occur by a small gap in the freezer door or adding a large amount of unfrozen food. A special kind of freezer is required to constantly cool the food and in this manner the texture of the food re chief(prenominal)s the similar (http//www. wikipedia. com). Food preserved by freezing or preserved by the process of freezing, is termed as frozen food.Preserving food by freezing is a widespread method of preservation as it slows both food decays. It happens by turning water to ice, which makes it unavailable for bacterial augmentation and slows down most chemical reactions. It is not executable to grow or produce all kinds of food throughout the year or e genuinely(prenominal) where around the world. The need for storage and keeping food overbold for a long period of time turn ups to make them available in all season and everywhere. It is the blessing of science tha t now it is possible to keep food frozen for our remedyment. Today, frozen food products are making our frantic life-styles seem a bit easier better.In fact, successfully evolving and adapting to the needs of consumers, frozen foods have been around a lot longer than we think (http//www. reference. com). History of Commercialization of Frozen Food Business The frozen food pains that we see today can be traced back to several years back to the old. Obviously, the existence of frozen food has always been on earth in climates that were cold enough for the food to freeze. The Chinese were the first to harness the power of freezing foods beyond the winter months. Later, the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Indians overly discovered that (http//www. fraweb. org). Even though ice-refrigerated railroad cars allowed perishable food products to be shipped as early as the 1860s, major innovations in refrigeration engineering after World War II gave birth to the frozen food intentness. Scient ists in like manner developed techniques to control the ripening of fruits, vegetables, and different perishables that further extended shelf-life. Advances in mailation came particularly fast steamships in the mid-1800s, railroads and refrigerated trucks 19th century and combined with locomote oil prices to dramatically reduce the cost of shipping food.It now be 70 percent less to ship cargo by sea, and 50 percent less to ship by air, than it did 20 years ago. Furthermore, invention of frozen orange juice concentration and artificial organic food items also match of clothes the consumers located in different geographical area to enjoy seasonal fresh foods at any time season (Halweil, 2002). With the course of time, many people developed innovative techniques of food-freezing, including Enoch Piper, William Davis, and Daniel E. Somes. But, Clarence Birdseye (1886 1956), an American taxidermist by barter, is credited for his quick freezing method that he invented in 1924 (http//www. oc. gov) and considered the father of the frozen food labor. He invented, developed, and commercialized a method for quick-freezing food products in convenient packages and without altering the original taste (http//www. wikipedia. com). Before the quick-freezing technique came along, foods were frozen at a evenhandedly slow rate, making the foods loose their taste and texture. However, Birdseye theorized that food ingrained be frozen very quickly so that its taste and texture can be maintained. His theory covered the packaging, type of paper used, and related innovations along with the freezing technique.In fact, this quick-freezing process actually ended up creating 168 secures (http//www. loc. gov). The ultramodern frozen food assiduity was born over 70 years ago, in 1930, when frozen foods were being trade ind commercially (http//www. nfraweb. org). Objectives of the Study This study attempts to identify the current condition of frozen food business in Bangla desh, especially the semi-processed food segment of frozen food. Therefore, our agenda focuses on the semi-processed food found in the retail outlet.Therefore, this study forget identify the future perspective of the frozen food business, space of growth, commerce chance and scope of developing frozen food business country wide to develop the trade and export for foreign earnings. Significance of the Study As we have seen from the earlier segment, frozen food business has become very important for Bangladesh due to its capability of foreign earnings and employment opportunity in this firmament. However, the semi-processed food segment in the frozen food has not got any attention consequently no proper research work is available.Therefore, we hope our study would help the frozen food domain as it would get out the future perspective of the frozen food business and develop the ideas on what the entrepreneurs and governing body should do for the development and expansion of thi s particular segment the. Methodology To prepare the report, we will go for crapperive research on the frozen food business throughout the semester. The study is mainly based on secondary entropy and documentary methods. Documents are an important source of development and such sources of data might be used in various ways for the research work.To pull in the study different books, journals have been studied. Different websites and portals have been visited when required. Furthermore, we took interview of Deputy Manager at Nandan. Lastly, we have concluded the study by providing some recommendations based on our findings. Limitations of the Study Everything is its limitations as it has opportunities to develop. There still exist some limitations in our study. The limitations are we only focused on the secondary source but not able to visit any production facility.There is also time constraint as for any research work it requires more that two to triple years but within three mo nth semester, we had to complete the study on the frozen food business. Literature Review International business is delimit as transactions that are devised and carried out across national borders and has existed since the national borders were organize and has shown growth throughout the history with greater peace and warrantor, economic successfulness through development in transportation and communication, and technological progress, especially advent of Internet, liberalization of trade policies and reduction in ariffs, and creation of global institutes and agreements (GATT or WTO). During the go away 30 years of twentieth century (1970-2000), the volume of world-wide trade in goods and services has expanded from a take aim of US$200 one thousand thousand to over US$6. 8 trillion a 34- fold accession, which is faster than world output. Direct foreign investment (FDI) reached a level of US$4. 7 trillion by 2000. The sales of foreign affiliates of multinational corporati ons (MNCs) recorded a level twice as high as global exports.The driving outcome behind the growing/changing worldwide business is the process of globalization, which has been accelerated during the last 2-3 decades (Hussain, 2002). A noteworthy recent development in world trade is the rapid expansion of processed food exports and it is the fastest growing component in food products (Athukorala & Sen, 1996 Australian Food Statistics, 2001). The impetus for export expansion has come from new agro-based manufacturing activities, in particular various fish preparations and processed foods.While labor-intensive manufactures too have demonstrated impressive growth dynamism in dogmatic terms, this has been dwarfed by the more dramatic growth record of processed goods. There is evidence that these new product lines have many positive attributes match to which the division of manufactures to the objectives of industrialization is normally evaluated (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).These includ e economy-wide linkages, important learning effects emanating from the mastery of new production technology, higher productivity, foreign merchandising effort and entrepreneurial skills convoluted in export success (Meller, 1995). Based on the conventional definition, export of manufacturing (Appendix A) region in fall exports of world trade merchandise increased to 81 percent in 1994 and closely associated with the rapid expansion of manufacturing exports form developing countries those shares in world manufacturing exports increased to 24 percent in 1994.On the opposite hand, share of processed food in world non-manufacturing (Appendix A) trade increased to 37 percent in 1994, and this share is sharper for developing countries compared to that of developed countries with increased to 38 percent compared to an increase to 36 percent recorded by developed countries in 1994. However, mong the 37 countries, some countries have performed distant better than others in this area su ch as Bangladesh, Bolivia, Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand and among the low-income countries, Bangladesh is a notable exception, with a growth rate of processed food exports that is more than double that that of any other low income developing country (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). Foreign account investment has been increasing at a faster rate than direct exports of processed foods over the past decades.Although its impact is before long not quantified, national-level regulation is frequently cited as a potential source of non-tariff barriers to trade for food products. These barriers may be intentionally aimed at favoring domestic production, or merely be the innocent by-products of a countrys attempt to serve its consumers by assuring various food eccentric attributes. FDI allows food processors to avoid rules intended to dis payoff imported products by setting production within particular markets.It may also allow more precise and rapid variant to domestic timbr e regulations (Hooker & Cas sound, 1996). A priori reasoning and some scattered evidence suggest a number of factors, which results in growing share of processed food in the world trade. A widely observed feature of consumer behavior in the global economy has been an increasing internationalization of food habits the increased importance of processed items in food expending patterns in developed countries as well as in large sections of the populace in many developing countries.Factors such as international migration, the communications revolution and international tourism have contributed to this phenomenon. This may have pictured a significant get hold of-side impetus to the growth of processed food exports from developing countries. On the supply-side, improvements in food technology, refrigeration facilities and transportation have do processed food items easily tradable across national boundaries (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). Furthermore, strategical choice of FDI or export the processed food in the international market is also influenced by national-level regulation on the ood tincture standard. FDI allows food processors, by setting production within a market, to avoid rules intended to disadvantage imported products and to adapt rapidly to domestic quality regulations through greater flexibility, better designed plants, shorter shipping distance, less need for preservatives, packaging or refrigeration, superior understanding of the rules or better appreciation of topical anesthetic demands for goods with differing attributes to direct food quality benefits to both firms and consumers (Hooker & Caswell, 1996).The emphasis on manufactured exports expansion in developing countries is rooted in the belief that compared to primary commodities, manufactured goods have some unalienable characteristics, which contribute to superior growth performance. As such employment potential, terms of trade gains, knowledge and technology spill-over are among the mo st empha surfaced of these characteristics (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).However, in general, the employment potential of resource-based manufacturing, based on standard trade theory (Heckscher-Ohlin model), is that an rank supply of labor is not a key determinant of comparative advantage in international production (Findlay, 1985 Roemer, 1979). The Heckscher-Ohlin model (1933) was first conceived by two Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin at the Stockholm School of Economics. The Heckscher-Ohlin model is a general balance wheel mathematical model of international trade.It builds on David Ricardos theory of comparative advantage by predicting patterns of trade and production based on the factor endowments of a job region. The model essentially says that countries will export products that utilize their abundant factor(s) of production and import products that utilize the countries scarce factor(s). However, this generalization in processed food is debatable as there is no clear relationship between income levels and processed food export growth.Furthermore, unlike in the case of further process of resources such as minerals and timber, final stages of food affect appear to be labor-intensive. Besides, terms of trade gains from export diversification depends on the degree of income and price elasticity of demand for the commodities concerned, and processed food exports are superior to primary products in terms of these criteria. Furthermore, processed food would be even superior to conventional manufactured goods, hich are by their very nature, are highly import-dependent. On the other hand, processed food industries have large domestic resource content and tend to be closely related to activities in the rural sector (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). It is very likely that recent trade agreements and developments will significantly influence national-level regulation of food quality. NAFTA, GATT and WTO are the first attempt to specifically address food quality standards as potential barriers to trade. content-level quality regulation takes on many dimensions or regimes because product quality itself is multidimensional. shell out theory provides a foundation for analyzing the impact of food quality regulation on FDI and trade. In its basic form, economic theory suggests that gains from trade arise when countries specialize in production of those goods to which they are best suited, thereby earning export income that allows for increased consumption.Trade theorys recent focus on analyzing rent seeking and rent shifting associated with national regulation, the benefits to individual sectors of an economy from trade agreements, and the divergence of outcomes between countries with different per capita income levels are also useful. New trade theory, on the other hand, discusses the effects on trade and investment patterns of imperfect competition, economies of scale, and distortions in factor markets.It advances two quite different explanations of Intra-industry Trade one emphasizes the interaction of product specialism and economies of scale and second one emphasizes the literal two-way trade of identical products, with price discrimination being the driving force. It is useful for analyzing quality regulation because it focuses on the many factors that affect the offbeat impacts of trade policy (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). Barriers to freer trade arising from non-tariff sources have become more prominent as progress has been made worldwide on tariff reduction.Parties to recent trade agreements have sought to lower non-tariff barriers or at a minimum to assure that progress toward freer trade is not frustrate by increases in non-tariff barriers. Regulation of product quality can be a major source of non-tariff barriers to trade. If such barriers are to be lowered, trading partners must develop methods of regulatory rapprochement. For processed food products the level of regulatory rapprochement on quality re gulation will have significant impacts on patterns of international trade in the next decade (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). Hirschberg et al. 1992) investigated the bilateral trading patterns of 30 countries and found that various market size variables (Appendix B) such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the comparative size of GDP between trading partners shared border and membership in either the European Community or European Free Trade Area proved to be significant determinants of intra-industry trade. Similarly, the study of Hartman and colleagues (1992) on processed food and beverage industries resulted stressed the positive effect on intra-industry trade of US total trade and economies of scope.The study on processed food of Handy and MacDonald (1989) found that product differentiation cultural ties, and firm size were significant determinants of FDI. Connor (1989) expanded on this evidence to suggest the importance of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade and domes tic and foreign market structure, and stressed effects of the host countrys regulatory practices, patent protection and trademark laws as likely factors in determining FDI levels. Ning and Reed (1995) highlighted the importance of factors such as host market size, growth rate, and membership in a trading bloc in explaining FDI patterns.In addition, research by Sheldon and Witzke (1992) provided various quality models to trade in food products and highlighted the key role played in the market by consumers ability to verify standards set by another country. National-level quality regulation and within trade bloc rapprochement influences firms choice of strategies to increase sales abroad such as export sales, joint ventures, FDI, and licensing although not yet quantified. The demand for food quality will continue to increase as incomes increase. National-level performance expectations will increase in the future.Demand for higher quality products increases as income increases. In addi tion, National governments are the first in line to respond to this demand with new regulations. The demand and new national regulations are likely to outstrip harmonization efforts on an ongoing basis, leaving national regulations with an enduring influence on patterns of trade in processed food products. tone regulation has momentum, in both more and less developed countries, making keeping up very difficult for firms and cooperating countries.For firms operatives under national-level quality regulation, a very significant problem is that the regulation is dynamic, changing, and in many cases ratcheting up (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). In addition to the national-level quality regulation, many countries have implemented labeling requirements for foods. Labeling provides processor and retailers choice, not necessarily consumer choice. The decision of these intermediaries is central to the outcome of any food labeling policy. Consumers will be part of their labeling decision, because retailers and processors will conduct marketing studies on consumer perception (Carter & Gruere, 2003).However, the food label is an important tool for improving the public understanding of the health benefits of following a wholesome diet. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has continued to study food labels with its Food Label and Package mickle (FLAPS). Data from the 20002001 FLAPS characterize various aspects of the labeling of processed, packaged foods, including nutrition labeling and various types of label claims. The final FLAPS database consists of 1,281 foods. An estimated 98. % of FDA-regulated processed, packaged foods sold annually have nutrition labels, with an additional 1. 7% of products exempt from nutrition labeling requirements. Health claims, structure or function claims, and nutrient content claims were set on food labels. In addition to the resource this, survey provides to CFSAN in assessing h ealth and nutrition information on the food label, registered dietitians and other health professionals can use FLAPS data to economic aid consumers in choosing a more nutritious diet to improve their health and well-being (http//www. sciencedirect. com).Food safety and Environmental Requirements in International Market It is useful to abstract between two kinds of food safety and environmental requirements. Mandatory requirements formulated by national or topical anesthetic governments are here referred to as regulations, temporary hookup voluntary requirements formulated by the private sector, NGOs or other boldnesss are referred to as standards. The latter category includes those voluntary requirements drawn up by National Standards organic laws and international bodies (United Nations, 2007). Food-safety standards and regulations tend to cover multiple issues.Apart from food safety, they cover issues such as plant and animal health, product quality, environmental protectio n and tender welfare. giving medication regulations applied to imports of FFV sector largely focus on food safety, labeling and marketing requirements. Private-sector standards tend to focus on food safety, environmental protection and social welfare (Geneva, 2006). A number of factors have contributed too increasingly stringent food safety regulations and standards imposed by governments and the private sector, in particular Recent food scares and scandals in developed countries Demographic developments in developed countries (i. e. ageing of population, which gives rise to be more risk-averse and quality-conscious consumer behavior) Risk minimization efforts by retailers and More sophisticated spying and testing methods. Food safety standards and regulations tend to cover multiple aspects. Apart from food safety, they cover issues such as plant and animal health, product quality, environmental protection and social welfare (United Nations, 2007). Requirements laid down in go vernment regulations are often transmitted to producers and exporters in developing countries through the supply chain.For example, EU legislation tends to hold importers accountable for compliance with its provisions with regard to imported products. The need to take responsibility for the safety of the food they import into the EU market places importers under an obligation to exercise due diligence over supply chains (Geneva, 2006). Possible Implication for growth Countries Developing countries face considerable constraints in meeting food safety regulations and private-sector requirements due to weak institutions, lack of infrastructure, high compliance cost, lack of information, and other factors.One can even go so far to say that the new mandatory and voluntary requirements act to reinforce other strengths and weaknesses at production unit and supply-chain levels, i. e. in terms of technical or transport infrastructure (Geneva, 2006). Adoption of the HACCP advent to assuring safety Developed countries are increasingly requiring adoption of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach to assuring food safety. In the EU, the use of HACCP has become mandatory for all food categories.The use of HACCP is not mandatory in the case of primary production. However, the use of HACCP is mandatory in packinghouses in the case of semi-processed and processed food, vegetables, and products that are pre-packed in the exporting country (United Nations, 2007). Economic Environment of Bangladesh During the last few years, Bangladesh made considerable progress in stabilizing and liberalizing its economy. As a result, inflation was much lower than previously, and average annual trustworthy GDP growth was above 5%, largely led by exports.Indeed, one of the most striking features of Bangladeshs trade is that textiles and particularly clothing dominate exports. This dramatic change in the idea of exports is the consequence of Bangladeshs increased integ ration into the multilateral trading system. On the structural policy front, the Government has continued to pursue, inter alia, trade liberalization, financial sector reform, and privatization (www. wto. org). Unfortunately, real annual GDP growth, averaging around 6. 7% during the review period, has not been sufficient to make much of a dent in the poverty that pervades Bangladesh.Given Bangladeshs high incidence of poverty, its dense population, and its vulnerability to natural disasters, including periodic flooding and cyclones, food security is a major policy objective of the Government. Trade Policy Framework The Ministry of employment (MOC) is responsible for coordinating trade policy matters through its agencies, as well as in consultation with other Ministries and governmental bodies national committees are formed to address specific issues on trade and industrial development.Private sector representatives, including business groups and academic institutions, are consulted in the policy-making process through their participation in the national committees. A major institutional change involves the upgrading of the Tariff Commission under the purview of the MOC the Commission is now empowered to conduct anti-dumping and countervailing investigations (http//www. wto. org).Local regulations, standards and good agricultural practices (GAP) can assist developing countries in promoting safe and sustainable production systems and in supplying products for domestic, regional and international markets that meet the quality, safety and environmental standards of those markets (United Nations, 2007). Trade Policy Measures In an effort to encourage investment, the Government offers a wide range of open-ended tax incentives, notably tax holidays and accelerated depreciation.However, the effectiveness of such incentives in attracting investment is doubtful, particularly in the absence of fiscal transparency, which would involve a detailed account of tax revenues f orgone and systematic evaluation of the impact of these incentives in relation to forgone taxes. The existence of incentives complicates tax administration and taxpayer compliance, while increasing the scope for tax avoidance and evasion, both of which are reflected in Bangladeshs low overall level of tax collection relative to GDP (http//www. wto. org). Frozen Food Business in BangladeshBangladesh as a third-world country poses poverty, unstructured business environment, conservative social values for living as an inherent quality. Since this country has achieved independence, it started to changing slowly and now its changing rapidly to cope with the modern and so called western country. Its business has got new dimensions and the whole country economy has started to play a good role in plastic the worlds future to some extends. The participation of developing countries in world trade is much lower than their participation in world production, as the main producers (China, India and Brazil) have huge domestic markets.Although China is the worlds largest producer, only a relatively small proportion of its production is exported, but its exports are increasing rapidly (United Nations, 2007) GDP growth of broad Industry sector was 9. 56% in FY 2005-06. The performance of the industrial sector was mainly based on the growth in textile and wearing apparel, drugs and pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, petroleum products, glass products, cement, electronics, footgear and food & beverage industries. In addition to that, we can see that the total export earnings registered a 21. 3% increase during 2005-2006 and rose to US$ 10156 million (16. 03% of GDP) from US$ 8655 million (14. 18 of GDP) in 2004-2005. Exports increased chiefly due to higher demand in both developed and developing countries. Garments had the major share (38. 86%), followed by knitwear and hosiery (35. 43%), frozen foods (4. 43%), jute goods (3. 94%) leather (2. 31%), chemical products (2. 52%) and raw j ute (1. 03%) (Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh, 2005-2006). Bangladesh is not well prepared to address the new requirements in international markets.Existing mechanisms for gathering, processing and disseminating information are not working properly and there is hardly any coordination, follow-up and monitoring. Largely, stakeholders are mostly unaware, uninformed and unconcerned. However, some private foundations and NGOs are raising awareness among producers of quality requirements and providing them with training. They are also exploring non-traditional markets (United Nations, 2007). The processing industries in the divisions countries (Asia and Pacific region) are essentially agro-based enterprises.There is a huge range of ethnic and traditional food products in each of the countries. The local food industry has evolved around domestically available agricultural raw materials, such as maize or corn, paddy rice, fruits, vegetable, root crops, sugarcane, coconuts, oil palm, sp ices, beverages (tea, coffee, cocoa) and honey. Modern food processing plants have been introduced in developing Regions countries, initially centered on processed foods derived from processed meats, wheat and flour products, and dairy products. This has led to an increase in imported raw materials ingredients and packaging, for the roduction of this type of food. In more recent years, however, indigenous companies have set up, often in joint venture with multinational corporations, to process local raw materials such as pineapples, cassava, fruits and vegetables to be packed, labeled and exported under the corporations brand names. These operations include food canning, carbonated beverages, frozen food manufacture, and flour and starch production. The companies apply total quality assurance as well as comprehensive research and development procedures to ensure high quality innovative products (Hicks, 2001).Bangladesh has been involved in frozen food business for a long period of t ime. During the 1970s, our frozen food industry started with rapid expansion of seafood processing and exporting. Now, the industry has come a long way with the frozen foods export is the second largest export sector of the country. Currently, many firms are involved in both import and export of frozen food. Imported goods include various fruits, semi cooked food, full cooked foods, whereas, exported goods encompass frozen shrimp, lobster, crab, and various vegetables.Although the industry involves both exports and imports, it is actually an export-oriented industry with an average annual growth rate of about 28% in the export area. In 1997, the fourth leading export item in Bangladesh was frozen shrimp and fish, with a 7. 3 percent share of the total export market (www. ifpri. org). The industry includes the following sub-sectors Hatcheries, Sustainable aqua-culture technology, Feed meals plants, and processing unit for value-added products. The frozen food could be categorized int o (1) Fresh Foods, (2) Semi Cooked/Processes Food, and (3) Full Cooked/Processes Foods (http//www. oi. gov. bd). Fresh Foods Fresh foods are those which has not cooked or baked but has done some modifications where necessary. For example, Sea Food, Beef, Chicken, Fishes, Mutton etc. Semi-Cooked/Processed Foods Semi Cooked/processed foods are those which has made or shaped or cooked in such a way that it can be eaten/use just by a simple cooking process at home. That means, these types of foods are already cooked to some extend and made ready to use after a short cook/bake. For example, Samucha, Singara, Noodles, Porota, etc. Full-Cooked/Processed Foods Full Cooked/processes foods are those which has made or shaped or cooked in such a way that it can be eaten/use instantly at any time. That means, these types of foods are already cooked/processed to use instantly. For example, Ice-Cream, Juice, etc. The government of Bangladesh and many other national and international organization s have been actively participating for the quality control of the industry. Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association (BFFEA), a company with limited liability, is the main organization that is involved with this industry and established in 1984.Its main job is to promote and protect the interest of Frozen Food processors, Packers and Exporters in Bangladesh. It also involves in establishing and Promoting, contacts with foreign buyers, business association and the Chamber of Commerce and Industries for developing export marketing and marketing of Frozen Foods (http//www. bangladeshembassy). A Fish and Fish Product regulating (Inspection and Quality Control) was created by the Bangladesh government and in 1985 upgraded the inspection laboratory and its personnel (www. ifpri. org).Among the international organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has helped this industry too. It has developed product standards, regulations, and fish inspectio n schemes. Based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, FAO initiated a 1996 project to give a hand in the preparation of a fish safety and quality control programme for the seafood plants in Bangladesh, Intergovernmental Organization for Marketing Information and Technical Advisory Services for fishery Products in the Asia Pacific Region (INFOFISH) also aided the industry several times.It has carried out projects that focused on the export promotion of value-added products and their sustainable development (http//www. ifpri. org). some other international organization, International Technology Development Group (ITDG), promotes food processing to help the rural pitiable in developing countries to secure sustainable livelihoods. This is part of ITDGs goal to build the technical skills of poor people in developing countries to improve their lives (O. Yu, 2002).ITDG links up with local organizations to provide training and entertain to food processors and entrepreneurs emphasizing on flexibility, little capital investment requirement, and operating in the home without the need for sophisticated or expensive equipment. Among the projects of are cereal grass milling in Peru, snack food production in Bangladesh, and fruit and vegetable drying in the Sudan (Halweil, 2002). ITDG began operating in Bangladesh in the early 1980s, but the ITDGBangladesh (ITDG-B) program was not formally established until 1990.ITDG-B provides technical assistance to small producers and local organizations, including training, product research and development, disseminating information, networking and policy advocacy (O. YU, 2002). Food processing could help the rural poor in Bangladesh, especially women, who are among the most disadvantaged. Food processing often requires only a little capital and can use local produce. Many Bangladeshi women, ITDG-B found, were already processing snack foods such as home made samucha, singara etc. Building on their own know -how, women could increase their plate income by using local resources to process foodstuff.Food processing can serve several development objectives for mansions and small business increased income, greater savings, food security and better nutrition (ITDG, 1999). Agro processing in the broad sense is important to the national economy, having shown a purported 32 per cent annual growth in past years (Bangladesh Economic Review, 1995). While large companies have now entered the snack food market, small producers serve local markets and boost local economies. Preserving food stretches the proceeds and productivity of farm produce, which is often wasted during peak seasons but scarce during lean seasons.Food processing helps to make food available during lean seasons and helps to stabilize household income (O. Yu, 2002). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has pointed out that the value realized from processing and marketing farm products can surpass primary production (FAO, 1995). The present market for these products is a sellers market dominated by a number of firms. Consumers have choices of different quality and price. Producers with appropriate marketing strategies are receiving market acceptance in the domestic market.The market for processed food products is becoming highly sophisticated and consumers are becoming more quality conscious. Major local markets include capital of Bangladesh and Chittagong cities. Apart from a growing domestic demand, the government is encouraging the export of processed foods, which is important for this sector. Processed food products in the local market give the sack from processors to the consumers through a chain of wholesalers and retailers. Distribution to the export market is through direct exporting or through trading companies (Hossain & Sheel, 2001). Constrains and Scope for DevelopmentWhile venial food processing offers numerous opportunities for improving livelihoods, several constraints that hamper d evelopment need to be addressed. A major one is that large companies such as Bombay Mix, Aftab, Rich etc. have begun producing myriad processed foods, including snacks, pickles, jelly and jam. Therefore, there is a stiff competition among the large and small scale producers in the domestic market (Hossain & Sheel, 2001). According to the Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), by April 2000 approximately ten large companies were manufacturing it.Another problem is that small producers have limited know-how in the technology of preparing food products, as take noteed by Azam Ali, coordinator of agro processing programs at ITDG, lack of proper information and expertise seems to be a particular problem in the case of minuscule food processing even though it can be a major source of jobs and additional income. A number of other concerns that inhibit small(a) food processing in Bangladesh (ITDG, 1998) need to be addressed There is a significant difference between having the ability to produce for home consumption and establishing a small business based on this product.A range of skills (both technical and business) is needed to make the transition from home production to the running of a small-scale enterprise. Linked to this is the ability to locate and target markets. This is a dynamic sector. Rural producers need to learn how to monitor change, develop markets and sell their products. Know-how in selling and localization of function wider markets was a common limitation. Consumer perception is an important issue faced by small-scale processors. There is a common perception that foods produced by small-scale operators are unhygienic and unsafe.This may be somewhat true but is commonly exaggerated. Nonetheless, processors need to be more conscious of hygiene, quality and consistency in food handling, including dangers of adulteration. Lack of access to raw materials, appropriate equipment and packaging materials are obstacles that small-scale processors fr equently face. Access to credit is lacking. Many of the small-scale processors belong to the most marginalized sector of the population and do not have disposable income. To enable them to put their skills into practice, most need access to credit to purchase equipment and raw materials. They also lack access to appropriate and timely information on a range of topics. To compete effectively, small-scale food processors need reliable technological information and information on suppliers and prices of materials, equipment and packaging, and marketing information. Recording transactions is a problem because of low literacy. In the 1990s, only 34. 4 per cent of Bangladeshs population was literate. Literacy among women was 25. 5 per cent. In rural areas it was as low as 13 per cent (BBS, 1999). Most problems were market related competition with large companies, inconsistent quality, inferior packaging and labeling, marketing and selling, insufficient access to quality raw materials, and lack of confidence among consumers in products of small-scale producers (Azami et al. , 1996 Azmi & Chowdhury, 1996). The value-added tax imposed by the government to the processed food industry and limited promotional activities for the small scale business due to the high cost of advertisement in mass media (Hossain & Sheel, 2001).The changing role of multinational companies and demographic factors, and more globalization of production and market are likely to enforce developing countries like Bangladesh to face increased competition emanating from liberal trade regimes, mammoth MNCs enjoying economies of scale by virtue of their global operation, and lack of access to global market because of no brand name and heavy expense of advertising for local firms (Hussain, 2002). As such in case of Malaysian processed food, they have the technology and the means to locally process food into higher-value products where there is ess competition from other exporting countries such as Bangl adesh (http//www. delmys. cec. eu. int). Furthermore, there is a lack of modern infrastructure and equipment for food processing in many developing countries of the Region. Inadequate transportation, poor distribution, inadequate cold storage and freezer capacity, lack of potable water and unreliable power supply are the main shortcomings. There is a shortfall of trained, skilled labor and technical competence in agriculture especially in the traditional food industry sector.This coupled with poor management, leads to inefficiency and poor competitiveness. tote costs have risen markedly in newly industrialized countries, in the last decade. This results in higher production costs, for labor-intensive operation. Moving the operation to lower labor cost countries, or automation, is the response of modern food companies (Hicks, 2001). To compete with these challenges developing countries should create employment through economic development and promoting technologies that suit the res ource endowment.A country like Bangladesh has large populations. Best way to achieve economic development by using the most abundant resource labor. Developing countries, therefore, have to supplement the R&D effort and modify technologies to their advantage, at least in sectors where most of the population draws its living such as agriculture, aquaculture, tourism, etc. Local business and enterprise development is important for adding value to local resources, creating employment, and improving traditional products for the global market.Taiwans herbal teas, dried/pickled fruits, India-Pakistan cooking spices, pickles and chutneys, Malaysian ready-to-cook traditional foods and paratha, are interesting innovations in business development. The potential for further development is vast and should be exploited (Hussain, 2002). The local business development also offers huge economic opportunities. Developing nations that emphasize greater food self-reliance can thereby retain precious foreign exchange and avoid the whims of international markets. There is strong evidence that local food often costs less than the quivalent foods bought on the international market or from a supermarket, because transportation costs are lower and there are fewer middlemen. In fact, rebuilding local food systems might offer the first genuine economic opportunity in farm country in years, a pressing need in view of the huge amounts of money leaking out of rural communities. To the extent that functions associated with food production and distribution are relocated in the participation under local ownership, more money will circulate in the local community to generate more jobs and income.This is particularly true if crops are not only grown locally, but also processed locally or served in local restaurants. This sort of alliance can help arrest the positive feedback loop that makes it harder and harder for independent players to survive. Cornwall in England is an icon that link local food to local food business In Cornwall, the Cornwall County Councils in-house meal service provider is backing local food suppliers as part of a ? 1 million flummox to supply school meals to 32 county primary and secondary schools for fresh meat, frozen food and vegetables (Halweil, 2002).A study on food processing in Bangladesh assessed the market and the potential of each activity (Chowdhury Sarker, 1989). Their study considered snack foods as secondary food processing. Some interesting findings included the following Many crops were produced throughout the year. Yet because the farms and production were small, the volume of crops that could be processed was smaller than the capacity of even the smallest machines. In 1996, for example, 52. 85 per cent of holdings were small, 0. 05 to 2. 49 acres. Medium-sized farm holdings, 2. 5 to 7. 9 acres, made up 11. 65 per cent, and large holdings were only 1. 67 per cent (BBS, 1999). Most crops, except jute and tea, were produced for th e local market, but production was still less than the countrys total demand. Some crops, therefore, were imported. Crop processing could provide employment for women and the rural poor. However, without appropriate equipment, modern capital-intensive production could overrun the industry and displace women and landless workers. Furthermore, snack foods were identified as a focus, along with rice and sugar cane products.ITDG-B determined that there was a need to train fieldworkers on how to make snack foods so that they could guide beneficiaries in running food processing businesses. Post-work fink consultations with development organizations emphasized the need to train fieldworkers further in establishing sustainable small-scale food processing businesses, particularly since the business orientation of these organizations and their staff was inadequate. When ITDG-B looked at existing suppliers of technology and training, it found that the existing training courses were oriented to wards large-scale operations (O.Yu, 2002). The search for alter quality and reliability of supply tends to create certain governance structures in the private sector along the supply or value chain. Private sector requirements function as value chain governance tools by specifying, communicating and enforcing compliance with key product and process parameters along the value chain, large buyers and retailers can benefit from control without ownership. Specific requirements on food safety, quality, and environmental or social issues substitute, to some extent, for direct monitoring and ownership by buyers.These requirements transfer the direct costs of monitoring and control from the buyers to the suppliers, who have to bear the costs of certification yet are rarely compensated through higher prices (United Nations, 2007). Food Quality and Standard in Bangladesh Quality of products is ensured through using appropriate raw materials, the right type of equipment and qualified technica l personnel. Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) standards and rules are followed to ensure high quality (Hossain Sheel, 2001). The BSTI can play vital role to develop and harmonize food standards for ensuring food quality and security in the country.They also emphasized fixing a standard level to promote food standards up to international level and norms to facilitate both the domestic and international trade for boosting the export earnings (http//www. newagebd. com). The BSTI, the national standards body, is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Industries. BSTI performs the task of formulation of national standards of industrial, food and chemical products. Quality control of these products is done according to Bangladesh Standards. Till date BSTI has come up with over 1800 national standards of various products adopting more than 132 International Standards (i. . ISO) and food standards set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (www. thedailystar. ne t). BSTI certifies the quality of commodities including food items for local consumption, which applies both for export and for import. Currently, 142 products are under compulsory certification marks scheme of BSTI including 54 agricultural and food items (http//www. bsti. gov. bd). The country needs food quality testing facilities because big international corporate businesses cannot purchase many Bangladeshi food products in the absence of such facilities.One of the major issues that prevent the corporate businesses in the food sector from purchasing from small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh is the lack of quality testing facilities (http//www. sdnbd. org). BSTI has made it mandatory to mention six facts regarding the product on the package. This includes the date of production, date of expiry (best before use), net contents or weight, address of the producers or marketing companies, maximum retail price (MRP) and the ingredients (http//www. bsti. gov. bd).BSTI colle cts random samples from the factories and buys products from the market to test. If they find sub-standard product they do not have the power to take action against the company or the industry. The BSTI Ordinance 1985 has been revise to Act 2003 for consumers protection against low quality products (http//www. thedailystar. net). Only the government food testing laboratory at IPH works on food safety and water quality issues. The legal provisions to ensure proper quality control of food are inadequate (world health organization, 2002).The Institute of Public Health (IPH) organizes its activities of quality control of drugs, food and water, production of vaccines, intravenous fluids, antisera and diagnostic reagents, diagnosis of infectious diseases and related research facilities. IPH is formed to assist the government to prevent and control major health hazards caused by contaminated and adulterated food and water. Besides this, it organizes training programs in the field of diagn osis, control and prevention of infectious diseases and food and water safety.It also conducts various research activities in related fields of public health, and to collaborate and co-operate with other national, international organizations and agencies in the promotion of public health (http//www. thedailystar. net). It is therefore essential to enhance awareness and understanding of the possible implications of quality, food safety and environmental requirements for the food sector in Bangladesh, and to carry out an assessment of the compliance costs and the costs and benefits of a proactive adjustment strategy for the sector, including its impact on competitiveness (United Nations, 2007).Recommendations The new product range of frozen food has put forwards the market for semi processed or processed food on the run. As people are becoming more work-based, especially women, there is very less time for cooking or preparing Tiffin for children. It is a relive for working mothers an d even clear for bachelors to prepare snacks or such items in no time and with less hassle. The frozen food industry has recently begun in Bangladesh, concentrating in major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong and directing towards only superstores.The growing demand from foreigners residing in cities previously to new generation working moms and other working people has opened a huge opportunity for potential players to join in this appealing industry. Blooming companies are trying to gain awareness for market share at recent times. This benefits customers in terms of superior quality products and better customer service. Thus, the industry has to devise innovative strategies so as to attract and retain more customers. Availability To gain more customers the companies need to reach out to retail outlets or departmental stores at various corners of the city.Although the product needs to be kept in special freezers, these companies can make it happen. They can provide incentives for re tailers or even at potential customer bases can provide with freezers themselves In order to sustain in this competitive arena, where lot of frozen food imports are pouring in, the industry in Bangladesh needs to be strong in distribution. Export Companies should spread its boundaries to outside country to gain more revenue. Things like shrimps and prawns and vegetables are already good frozen exports and are earning good amount of revenue. So, exporting can be good choice to expand.Science and Technology Distribution and mass customized production may be in the form of acquiring new and advanced store equipments. Such things would increase the pace of goods delivered to customers. Specialized equipment for preserving frozen foods may be acquired. Equipment is being developed that will give both visibility and attractiveness to both frozen food, made possible by new advances in refrigeration which permit visibility but retain low temperature. Modern machinery and technology can help in product design and development, mass production, calibration and quality control, packaging and transport.Promotion At this point, the frozen food companies should do rigorous promotional activities in order to increase awareness level in equiprobable customers. Different programs may include in-store demonstrations of how easy the food is to prepare, leaflets of the items given to the parents when they wait to take their kids from schools. Leaflets in newspapers and colorful ads in the TV during drama time, 900 pm to be shown in various satellite Bangladeshi channels can also be good starting. Another ground to show off is during the international trade fairs.Placing The cities are big and to create a place there one needs to be different. The people to be targeted are literate working people with white color jobs or students. Therefore to reach this mass a company needs to set up somewhere from where distribution is easy to retailers. Another daring step can be to have a for ward linkage or integration. That is to say to have a retail outlet of only company made frozen food. This is company owned and can have a small cafe serving only snacks out of their items. The shop should have people from the company who can answer to any queries the people ay have. Innovation Constant rendering is required to have a strong hold on the market share. Outside of Bangladesh frozen food has ranged from snacks to whole meals. The frozen food companies should develop new products through research and development to match with the ever changing demands. They should always try to make ways to lower cost without hampering quality much so to compete with the imports. Installment of Training Programs Manpower manipulative skills are available to the agro-industries in the Region.However, inadequacy of in-depth technical understanding and lack of management skills in the workforce restricts innovation and consistent performance. Therefore, government as well as private sector should develop a sound technological and industrial base, human resources in science, technology administration and management. Institutes for research and development working on the needs of frozen food industries should be established at different levels of development. Infrastructure Development and Favorable Trade Policy Both institutional and physical, is a component of most national development plans.Establishment of basic infrastructure such as roads, distribution system, power supply, and favorable and supportive policy to have adequate cold storage and freezer system is recognized as essential for the growth of semi-processed food industries. There should be a modern infrastructure and equipment for food processing. Conclusion It is very much clear that Bangladesh potential country to produce frozen food due to its resource endowment abundant labor force that is suitable for the production of frozen food. The essence of the frozen food business is that it becomes an income source for the local and rural people.There are large organizations associated with this industry, and frankincense a huge number of employees are employed. That is how this industry is keeping a great deal of contribution in removing unemployment rate and creating more employment opportunity, and, shaping its future. Furthermore, increasing demand both in local and in overseas for the frozen food and little investment requirement make this business more attractive and profitable for small-scale and larger producers. However, massive pressure from imported semi-processed foods is affecting the local small-scale producers such as home made foods.Therefore, frozen food businesses require achieving the quality standard and government should aid small-size business with tax reduction, and facilitate more investment. Here, the private sectors or larger organization can play an important role by facilitating the small producers in the value creation activities. Furthermore, consumer awar eness is also a big factor to develop the frozen food industry. Unless and until the consumes are willing to buy locally produced semi-processed food and help the local producers produce quality products, the development of frozen food business country wide might not take place.
Friday, May 24, 2019
High turnover. Small companies tend to have a small structure, thuslyce job opportunities are few, which force employees to change job. Poor customer service. Distributors mostly only care about selling off a product, then they behave customers with Microsoft. The main problem is that Microsoft Customer service is focused on developed countries, where the needs and tools are greatly different. In some cases the technical service is non-existent, heavily hurting the image of the company, not the distributor.Poor input for further developing products. If all the deployment and input is being done and received by a distributor, then it is most likely that the training will never reach Microsofts engineering department. Without that knowledge products will stall for that particular market in a short period of time, inflicting loses in the long run for the company. 2. Are there countries where Microsofts strategy might not work? Why? Small countries with an rummy language possibly ar e the toughest.Microsoft strategy mean that fleck topical anaesthetic partners are relied to market the products, Microsoft is still in charge of the code and language. In that require Microsoft is very vulnerable to small IT companies that develop solutions for their language. With small partners, it is easy for local developers to attract those distribution channels for their own product, therefore using Microsofts resources and know-how to moderate profit out of other products, making Microsoft lose money. 3. What other kinds of businesses might find Microsofts strategy to be effective?Please explain. Car manufacturers. They fundamentally operate the same scheme with distributors. When a cars manufacturer enter a new country most times they give the subsidization to sell the cars to a local person or company. Almost entirely those distributors operate in a very small area. The manufacturer covers Marketing and promotion, while the distributor has to develop their sales only in their area. 4. How might Microsoft need to change its strategy once it has established a strong position in a foreign market? They need to deploy a strong services net.They need to be in constant contact with customers in auberge to assure that they meet their current and future needs. They need to deploy training facilities for their products in order to have a strong pool of expertise from where enterprises foot nurture in order to keep fidelity with the products. They need to partner with high profile local companies to develop solutions in order to gain traveling bag in the country. 5. Describe how host governments might react to Microsofts entry strategy? Governments usually react in a good way.The way Microsoft do business benefit host countries a lot, since it creates a lot of jobs for the locals. Nonetheless there might be some countries who could think that Microsoft is a danger for their local IT industry. In those cases their strategy also soften their position a lo t, since the entry in indirect. Reference Glusing, J. (2006, June 1). The third world goes high-tech The dirt road to the information superhighway. Spiegel. Retrieved from http//www. spiegel. de/international/spiegel/the-third-world-goes-high-tech-the-dirt-road-to-the-information-superhighway-a-419034. html